Abstract

Some regions of objects will be measured incorrectly or cannot be measured in optical three-dimensional (3D) measurement system based on coded structured light, due to occlusion, shadow, transfer function of measurement system, and noise. To obtain 3D data as much as possible and as correctly as possible, we proposed a method using improved binary spatio-temporal encoded illumination and voting algorithm. Firstly, the binary spatio-temporal encoded (BSE) pattern is improved with a redundancy encoding method. One code is assigned to two adjacent sections and distinguished with their temporal coordinates. The redundancy encoding method provides more cues for code correcting and retrieving. Secondly, symbols are estimated according to four coding cues—code redundancy, continuity of stripes, intensity variation in temporal direction, and neighbor symbols in sequence. Finally, a voting algorithm is adopted to obtain final symbols. A plaster model of a human head was measured to validate the method. The experimental results reveal that more valid points can be obtained and the reliability of the decoding results is improved.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (3)

2009 (1)

Y. Li, H. Jin, and H. Wang, “Three-dimensional shape measurement using binary spatio-temporal encoded illumination,” Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

Y. Li, X. Su, and Q. Wu, “Accurate phase-height mapping algorithm for PMP,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

F. Blais, “Review of 20 years of range sensor development,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 231–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Legarda-Sáenz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jüptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

D. Bergmann, “New approach for automatic surface reconstruction with coded light,” Proc. SPIE 2572, 2–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Bergmann, D.

D. Bergmann, “New approach for automatic surface reconstruction with coded light,” Proc. SPIE 2572, 2–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blais, F.

F. Blais, “Review of 20 years of range sensor development,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 231–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bothe, T.

R. Legarda-Sáenz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jüptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, S.

J. Salvi, S. Fernandez, T. Pribanic, and X. Llado, “A state of the art in structured light patterns for surface profilometry,” Pattern Recognition 43, 2666–2680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guan, C.

Hassebrook, L. G.

Huntley, J. M.

Jin, H.

Jüptner, W. P.

R. Legarda-Sáenz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jüptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, D. L.

Legarda-Sáenz, R.

R. Legarda-Sáenz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jüptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, C. Zhao, Y. Qian, H. Wang, and H. Jin, “High-speed and dense three-dimensional surface acquisition using defocused binary patterns for spatially isolated objects,” Opt. Express 18, 21628–21635 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, H. Jin, and H. Wang, “Three-dimensional shape measurement using binary spatio-temporal encoded illumination,” Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, X. Su, and Q. Wu, “Accurate phase-height mapping algorithm for PMP,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Llado, X.

J. Salvi, S. Fernandez, T. Pribanic, and X. Llado, “A state of the art in structured light patterns for surface profilometry,” Pattern Recognition 43, 2666–2680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pribanic, T.

J. Salvi, S. Fernandez, T. Pribanic, and X. Llado, “A state of the art in structured light patterns for surface profilometry,” Pattern Recognition 43, 2666–2680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Y.

Saldner, H. O.

Salvi, J.

J. Salvi, S. Fernandez, T. Pribanic, and X. Llado, “A state of the art in structured light patterns for surface profilometry,” Pattern Recognition 43, 2666–2680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, H. J.

Su, W.

Su, X.

Wang, H.

Wu, Q.

Y. Li, X. Su, and Q. Wu, “Accurate phase-height mapping algorithm for PMP,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yau, S.-T.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, C.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

F. Blais, “Review of 20 years of range sensor development,” J. Electron. Imaging 13, 231–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

Y. Li, X. Su, and Q. Wu, “Accurate phase-height mapping algorithm for PMP,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1955–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. Legarda-Sáenz, T. Bothe, and W. P. Jüptner, “Accurate procedure for the calibration of a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 43, 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pattern Recognition (1)

J. Salvi, S. Fernandez, T. Pribanic, and X. Llado, “A state of the art in structured light patterns for surface profilometry,” Pattern Recognition 43, 2666–2680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Bergmann, “New approach for automatic surface reconstruction with coded light,” Proc. SPIE 2572, 2–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Li, H. Jin, and H. Wang, “Three-dimensional shape measurement using binary spatio-temporal encoded illumination,” Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of 3D measurement system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of redundancy encoding.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Only one section is incomplete and (b) both sections are all incomplete.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Wrong code estimated and (b) multiple symbols estimated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Captured image of the sixth pattern and (b) the decoded results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity variation of a camera pixel over time and the possible symbols.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Same symbol estimated and (b) two different symbols estimated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sketch of voting algorithm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Decoded results obtained with unimproved method and (b) typical area enlarged. (c) The results obtained with improved method and (d) enlarged area.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) 3D results obtained with unimproved and (b) with improved method.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spatio-Temporal Coordinates and Symbols based on Redundancy Encoding Method

Tables Icon

Table 2 Performance Comparison Before and After Processing with Voting Algorithm

Equations (1)

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{ Z w ( u , v ) = n = 0 N k n ( u , v ) Δ u p n ( u , v ) , X w ( u , v ) = a 1 ( u , v ) + b 1 ( u , v ) Z w ( u , v ) , Y w ( u , v ) = a 2 ( u , v ) + b 2 ( u , v ) Z w ( u , v ) ,

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