Abstract

The full Mueller matrix was measured to obtain the polarization state of the scattered light for a variety of algae with different shapes, wall compositions, sizes, and refractive indices. The experimental setup was a multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer, by which measurements were performed for scattering angles from 16° to 160° sampled at every second degree for wavelengths of 473nm and 532nm. Previously, the polarization of light scattered from microalgae was investigated only for a few species, and the Mueller matrix was found to have little variation between the species. In our work a total of 11 algal species were investigated, representing diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids, green algae, and a cryptophyte. The selection of species was made to obtain high variability in shape, size, cell wall, and refractive index. As in previous investigations, very small variations were found between species for most of the Mueller matrix elements, but noticeable variations were found for M11, (M12+M21)/2 and (M33+M44)/2.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Erbe and R. Sigel, “Ellipsometric light scattering to probe the interface of colloids—current applications and future challenges,” EPJ Web Conf. 5, 02001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. Sigel and A. Erbe, “Effects of sample polydispersity and beam profile on ellipsometric light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2161–2170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, I. S. Nerbo, and M. Lindgren, “Well-conditioned multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Opt. Eng. 47, 073604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Ø. Svensen, Ø. Frette, and S. R. Erga, “Scattering properties of microalgae: the effect of size and cell wall,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5762–5769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. K. Svendsen, I. S. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, “Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Grossart and M. Simon, “Interactions of planktonic algae and bacteria: effects on algal growth and organic matter dynamics,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 47, 163–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: Temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1787–1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

O. A. Sieneshchekov, K. H. Jung, and J. L. Spudich, “Two rhodopsins mediate phototaxis to low- and high-intensity light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 8689–8694 (2002).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, S. Poirier, and B. Drevillon, “General and self-consistent method for the calibration of polarization modulators, polarimeters, and Mueller-matrix ellipsometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3490–3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

K. Witkowski, T. Krol, A. Zielinski, and E. Kuten, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 859–869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kouzoubov, M. J. Brennan, and J. C. Thomas, “Treatment of polarization in laser remote sensing of ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3873–3885 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

K. Witkowski, L. Wolinski, Z. Turzynski, D. Gedziorowska, and A. Zielinski, “The investigation of kinetic growth of chlorella-vulgaris cells by the method of integral and dynamic light-scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1365–1372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. Wayne, A. Kadota, M. Watanabe, and M. Furuya, “Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra,” Planta 184, 515–524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

S. H. Cloude, “Conditions for the physical realisability of matrix operators in polarimetry,” SPIE Rev. 1166, 177–185(1989).

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Hofer and O. Glatter, “Mueller matrix calculations for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric objects with low contrast,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2389–2400 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326(1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1980 (2)

1978 (3)

1970 (1)

1965 (1)

P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

F. Perrin, “Polarization of light scattered by isotropic opalescent media,” J. Chem. Phys. 10, 415–427 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Aas, L. M. S.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: Temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1787–1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asano, S.

Aursland, K.

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Balch, W. M.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boss, E.

Boss, E. S.

Bottiger, J. R.

Brennan, M. J.

Brown, C. W.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cancannon, B.

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, B. E.

Charlton, F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cloude, S. H.

S. H. Cloude, “Conditions for the physical realisability of matrix operators in polarimetry,” SPIE Rev. 1166, 177–185(1989).

Compain, E.

Cucci, T. L.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, S. G.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drapeau, D. T.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drevillon, B.

Drévillon, B.

Ellingsen, P. G.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Erbe, A.

A. Erbe and R. Sigel, “Ellipsometric light scattering to probe the interface of colloids—current applications and future challenges,” EPJ Web Conf. 5, 02001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Sigel and A. Erbe, “Effects of sample polydispersity and beam profile on ellipsometric light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2161–2170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erga, S. R.

Ø. Svensen, Ø. Frette, and S. R. Erga, “Scattering properties of microalgae: the effect of size and cell wall,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5762–5769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frette, Ø.

Fritz, J. J.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Furuya, M.

R. Wayne, A. Kadota, M. Watanabe, and M. Furuya, “Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra,” Planta 184, 515–524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagne, G.

Garcia-Caurel, E.

Gedziorowska, D.

K. Witkowski, L. Wolinski, Z. Turzynski, D. Gedziorowska, and A. Zielinski, “The investigation of kinetic growth of chlorella-vulgaris cells by the method of integral and dynamic light-scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1365–1372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glatter, O.

Goldstein, D. H.

Grossart, H. P.

H. P. Grossart and M. Simon, “Interactions of planktonic algae and bacteria: effects on algal growth and organic matter dynamics,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 47, 163–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guillard, R. R. L.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hauge, P.

Hofer, M.

Holland, A. C.

Hoogenboom, H. J.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

Hunt, A. J.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Perry, A. J. Hunt, and D. R. Huffman, “Experimental determinations of Mueller scattering matrices for nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2700–2710 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, K. H.

O. A. Sieneshchekov, K. H. Jung, and J. L. Spudich, “Two rhodopsins mediate phototaxis to low- and high-intensity light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 8689–8694 (2002).

Kadota, A.

R. Wayne, A. Kadota, M. Watanabe, and M. Furuya, “Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra,” Planta 184, 515–524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, T. J.

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kildemo, M.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, I. S. Nerbo, and M. Lindgren, “Well-conditioned multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Opt. Eng. 47, 073604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. K. Svendsen, I. S. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, “Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kilpatrick, K. A.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

Kouzoubov, A.

Krol, T.

K. Witkowski, T. Krol, A. Zielinski, and E. Kuten, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 859–869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuten, E.

K. Witkowski, T. Krol, A. Zielinski, and E. Kuten, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 859–869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ladstein, J. M.

J. M. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. K. Svendsen, I. S. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, “Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laude, B.

Laux, A.

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindgren, M.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, I. S. Nerbo, and M. Lindgren, “Well-conditioned multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Opt. Eng. 47, 073604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lofftus, K.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lotsberg, J. K.

J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macke, A.

Mackowski, D. W.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marken, E.

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Messmer, A.

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, K. Muinonen, and B. E. Carlson, “Scattering of light by large nonspherical particles: ray-tracing approximation versus T-matrix method,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1934–1936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mobley, C. D.

Muinonen, K.

Mullen, L.

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nerbo, I. S.

F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, I. S. Nerbo, and M. Lindgren, “Well-conditioned multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Opt. Eng. 47, 073604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nerbø, I. S.

J. M. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. K. Svendsen, I. S. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, “Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olseng, C.

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, F.

F. Perrin, “Polarization of light scattered by isotropic opalescent media,” J. Chem. Phys. 10, 415–427 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Perry, R. J.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” in Benchmark Papers in Optics: Light in the Sea, J.Tyler, ed. (Halstead, 1972), Vol. 3, pp. 152–174.

Poirier, S.

Prentice, J.

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quinby-Hunt, M. S.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sieneshchekov, O. A.

O. A. Sieneshchekov, K. H. Jung, and J. L. Spudich, “Two rhodopsins mediate phototaxis to low- and high-intensity light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 8689–8694 (2002).

Sigel, R.

A. Erbe and R. Sigel, “Ellipsometric light scattering to probe the interface of colloids—current applications and future challenges,” EPJ Web Conf. 5, 02001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Sigel and A. Erbe, “Effects of sample polydispersity and beam profile on ellipsometric light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2161–2170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, M.

H. P. Grossart and M. Simon, “Interactions of planktonic algae and bacteria: effects on algal growth and organic matter dynamics,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 47, 163–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slade, W. H.

Spudich, J. L.

O. A. Sieneshchekov, K. H. Jung, and J. L. Spudich, “Two rhodopsins mediate phototaxis to low- and high-intensity light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 8689–8694 (2002).

Stabo-Eeg, F.

F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, I. S. Nerbo, and M. Lindgren, “Well-conditioned multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Opt. Eng. 47, 073604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. K. Svendsen, I. S. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, “Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Svendsen, G. K.

J. M. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. K. Svendsen, I. S. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, “Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Svensen, Ø.

Thomas, J. C.

Thompson, R. C.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turzynski, Z.

K. Witkowski, L. Wolinski, Z. Turzynski, D. Gedziorowska, and A. Zielinski, “The investigation of kinetic growth of chlorella-vulgaris cells by the method of integral and dynamic light-scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1365–1372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

Vaillancourt, D.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vaillancourt, R. D.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H.

H. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles(Wiley, 1957).

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326(1985).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

R. Wayne, A. Kadota, M. Watanabe, and M. Furuya, “Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra,” Planta 184, 515–524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waterman, P. C.

P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wayne, R.

R. Wayne, A. Kadota, M. Watanabe, and M. Furuya, “Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra,” Planta 184, 515–524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witkowski, K.

K. Witkowski, T. Krol, A. Zielinski, and E. Kuten, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 859–869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Witkowski, L. Wolinski, Z. Turzynski, D. Gedziorowska, and A. Zielinski, “The investigation of kinetic growth of chlorella-vulgaris cells by the method of integral and dynamic light-scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1365–1372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wolinski, L.

K. Witkowski, L. Wolinski, Z. Turzynski, D. Gedziorowska, and A. Zielinski, “The investigation of kinetic growth of chlorella-vulgaris cells by the method of integral and dynamic light-scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1365–1372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zielinski, A.

K. Witkowski, T. Krol, A. Zielinski, and E. Kuten, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 859–869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Witkowski, L. Wolinski, Z. Turzynski, D. Gedziorowska, and A. Zielinski, “The investigation of kinetic growth of chlorella-vulgaris cells by the method of integral and dynamic light-scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1365–1372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zugger, M. E.

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

Ø. Svensen, Ø. Frette, and S. R. Erga, “Scattering properties of microalgae: the effect of size and cell wall,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5762–5769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer and O. Glatter, “Mueller matrix calculations for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric objects with low contrast,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2389–2400 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kouzoubov, M. J. Brennan, and J. C. Thomas, “Treatment of polarization in laser remote sensing of ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3873–3885 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, “Scattering of polarized light by polydisperse systems of irregular particles,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1113–1121 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Perry, A. J. Hunt, and D. R. Huffman, “Experimental determinations of Mueller scattering matrices for nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2700–2710 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Asano and M. Sato, “Light-scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962–974 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Goldstein, “Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6676–6683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of polarized light interactions via the Mueller matrix,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1323–1332 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Compain, S. Poirier, and B. Drevillon, “General and self-consistent method for the calibration of polarization modulators, polarimeters, and Mueller-matrix ellipsometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3490–3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Sigel and A. Erbe, “Effects of sample polydispersity and beam profile on ellipsometric light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2161–2170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquat. Microb. Ecol. (1)

H. P. Grossart and M. Simon, “Interactions of planktonic algae and bacteria: effects on algal growth and organic matter dynamics,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 47, 163–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

EPJ Web Conf. (1)

A. Erbe and R. Sigel, “Ellipsometric light scattering to probe the interface of colloids—current applications and future challenges,” EPJ Web Conf. 5, 02001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Perrin, “Polarization of light scattered by isotropic opalescent media,” J. Chem. Phys. 10, 415–427 (1942).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1541–1558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, “Dynamic response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603–1610 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Plankton Res. (1)

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (7)

Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: Temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1787–1794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Witkowski, T. Krol, A. Zielinski, and E. Kuten, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 859–869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Witkowski, L. Wolinski, Z. Turzynski, D. Gedziorowska, and A. Zielinski, “The investigation of kinetic growth of chlorella-vulgaris cells by the method of integral and dynamic light-scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1365–1372 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, S. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Cancannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1 degrees and 170 degrees,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326(1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (1)

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 34–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, I. S. Nerbo, and M. Lindgren, “Well-conditioned multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Opt. Eng. 47, 073604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Planta (1)

R. Wayne, A. Kadota, M. Watanabe, and M. Furuya, “Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra,” Planta 184, 515–524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

O. A. Sieneshchekov, K. H. Jung, and J. L. Spudich, “Two rhodopsins mediate phototaxis to low- and high-intensity light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 8689–8694 (2002).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. M. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. K. Svendsen, I. S. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, “Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Rev. (1)

S. H. Cloude, “Conditions for the physical realisability of matrix operators in polarimetry,” SPIE Rev. 1166, 177–185(1989).

Other (3)

H. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles(Wiley, 1957).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” in Benchmark Papers in Optics: Light in the Sea, J.Tyler, ed. (Halstead, 1972), Vol. 3, pp. 152–174.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative types of algae investigated. Left: Chain forming pennate diatom Pseudonitzchia sp. (From a natural sample, other smaller algae can also be seen.) Upper right: Thecate dinoflagellate of the same size and form as Heterocapsa triquetra. Lower right: Coccolithophoride Emiliania huxleyi. (Photos by Stig Bjarte Haugen).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sketch of the MME instrumentation. (M) fixed mirrors, (TM) tiltable mirrors, (C) compensators, (CW) compensators wheel, (P) polarizers, (S) shutter, (PMT) photomultiplier tube, (R1) rotation axis 1, and (R2) rotation axis 2. The system is not drawn to scale. (From [6].) (b) Schematic diagram of the setup for backward scattering measurements ( 46 ° to 160 ° ). The black reflector was used to reflect the laser beam upwards out of the sample to avoid problems with light that was first scattered and then reflected as well as light that was first reflected and then scattered.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated and measured results for Dynospheres. Upper left: M 11 . Upper right: M 12 . Lower left: M 33 . Lower right: M 34 . The black curve shows results from Mie calculations and the red, dotted curve shows measured results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ten measurements of the full Mueller matrix for Dunaliella (not Cloude filtered). The log of M 11 is plotted for element M 11 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ten measurements of the full Mueller matrix for 0.2 μm filtered seawater (not Cloude filtered). The log of M 11 is plotted for element M 11 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated (based on Mie theory) and measured results for Emilina huxleyi. Upper left: M 11 . Upper right: ( M 12 + M 21 ) / 2 . Lower left: ( M 33 + M 44 ) / 2 . Lower right: ( M 34 M 43 ) / 2 . The black curves show simulated results, and the red curves show measured results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized, cloud filtered and smoothed Mueller matrix element M 12 = ( M 12 + M 21 ) / 2 , and M 33 = ( M 33 + M 44 ) / 2 for eight different algae measurements and of 0.2 μm filtered seawater (salt) (Amphidinium carterae (Amph), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with cell wall (Chlam), Chlorella sp. (Chlor), Emiliania huxleyi (Emil), Heterocapsa triquetra (Hetero), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Phaeo), Pseudonitzschia sp. (Pseudo), Dunaliella sp(Dun), and Dynospheres (Dyno)).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the 11 Algae Cultures Used in the Present Investigation in Terms of Size (Typical Diameter of the Longest Side), Type, Shape, and Concentration (Number of Algae Cells per ml)

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B = A M W ,
B 11 = A 0 [ 1 a 1 a 2 a 3 ] M [ 1 s 1 s 2 s 3 ] T ,
M = A 1 B W 1 .
Δ M M = κ A Δ A A + κ W Δ W W + κ W κ A Δ B B ,
κ A = A A 1 .
η DB = 10 log ( λ pos λ neg ) ,

Metrics