Abstract

Photodiode-array-based spectrometers are increasingly being used in a wide variety of applications. However, the signal measured by this type of instrument often is not what is anticipated by the user and is often subject to contamination from stray light. This paper describes an efficient and low-cost stray light correction approach based on a relatively simple system using a monochromator-based source. The paper further discusses the limitations of using a monochromator instead of a laser, as used by previous researchers, and its impact on the quality of the stray light correction. The reliability and robustness of the stray light correction matrix generated have been studied and are also reported.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).
  3. S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. S. Vogt, R. G. Tull, and P. Kelton, “Self-scanned photodiode array: high performance operation in high dispersion astronomical spectrophotometry,” Appl. Opt. 17, 574–592 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook (Thermo RGL, 2002).
  7. Y. Zong, S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. J. Kostkowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, 1997).
  9. K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” in 6th EARSeL Imaging Spectroscopy SIG Workshop (EARSeL, 2009), http://www.earsel6th.tau.ac.il/~earsel6/CD/PDF/earsel-PROCEEDINGS/3035%20Lenhard.pdf.
  10. N. Ronald, Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill Science Engineering, 1999).
  11. S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. Theocharous, S. Tong, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Temperature and nonlinearity corrections for a photodiode array spectrometer used in the field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 866–875 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. MATLAB version 6.5.1. Natick, Mass., The MathWorks, Inc. (2003).
  13. C. Moler, Numerical Computing with MATLAB, Linear Equations (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2004).

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Y. Zong, S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Belluso, M.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Billotta, S.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Bracewell,

N. Ronald, Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill Science Engineering, 1999).

Brown, S. B.

Y. Zong, S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calí, A.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Cardwell, T. J.

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cattrall, R. W.

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Damm, M.

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” in 6th EARSeL Imaging Spectroscopy SIG Workshop (EARSeL, 2009), http://www.earsel6th.tau.ac.il/~earsel6/CD/PDF/earsel-PROCEEDINGS/3035%20Lenhard.pdf.

Fallica, P. G.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Feinholz, M. E.

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flora, S. J.

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. Theocharous, S. Tong, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Temperature and nonlinearity corrections for a photodiode array spectrometer used in the field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 866–875 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gege, P.

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” in 6th EARSeL Imaging Spectroscopy SIG Workshop (EARSeL, 2009), http://www.earsel6th.tau.ac.il/~earsel6/CD/PDF/earsel-PROCEEDINGS/3035%20Lenhard.pdf.

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. Theocharous, S. Tong, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Temperature and nonlinearity corrections for a photodiode array spectrometer used in the field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 866–875 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

Y. Zong, S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kelton, P.

Kostkowski, H. J.

H. J. Kostkowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, 1997).

Lenhard, K.

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” in 6th EARSeL Imaging Spectroscopy SIG Workshop (EARSeL, 2009), http://www.earsel6th.tau.ac.il/~earsel6/CD/PDF/earsel-PROCEEDINGS/3035%20Lenhard.pdf.

Lombardo, S.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Lykke, K. R.

Y. Zong, S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazzillo, M. C.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Micciché, A.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Moler, C.

C. Moler, Numerical Computing with MATLAB, Linear Equations (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2004).

Morabito, A.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Ohno, Y.

Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook (Thermo RGL, 2002).

Pegrum, H. M.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ronald, N.

N. Ronald, Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill Science Engineering, 1999).

Salim, S. G. R.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. Theocharous, S. Tong, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Temperature and nonlinearity corrections for a photodiode array spectrometer used in the field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 866–875 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanfilippo, D.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Sciacca, E.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Scuderi, S.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Shen, H.

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Theocharous, E.

Timpanaro, M. C.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Tong, S.

Tull, R. G.

Vogt, S. S.

Winkler, R.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woolliams, E. R.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yarbrough, M. A.

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

Analyst (1)

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Int. J. Thermophys. (1)

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. (1)

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Calí, A. Micciché, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Metrologia (1)

S. B. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook (Thermo RGL, 2002).

H. J. Kostkowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, 1997).

K. Lenhard, P. Gege, and M. Damm, “Implementation of algorithmic correction of stray light in a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor,” in 6th EARSeL Imaging Spectroscopy SIG Workshop (EARSeL, 2009), http://www.earsel6th.tau.ac.il/~earsel6/CD/PDF/earsel-PROCEEDINGS/3035%20Lenhard.pdf.

N. Ronald, Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill Science Engineering, 1999).

MATLAB version 6.5.1. Natick, Mass., The MathWorks, Inc. (2003).

C. Moler, Numerical Computing with MATLAB, Linear Equations (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2004).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrometer bandpass and the monochromator bandpass functions—the X axis is replaced by the pixel order inside the array detector rather than the wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response of the spectrometer to every point on the monochromator bandpass function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Convolution of the spectrometer and the monochromator bandpass functions: model and experimental results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Monochromator-based stray light correction system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral stray light distribution function for different monochromator bandwidths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral stray light distribution function for different irradiance levels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral stray light distribution function ( d i , j ) at different input wavelengths.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral stray light distribution function ( d i , j ) at 507.6 and 709.5 nm input wavelengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral LSF ( f LSF ) at 507.6 and 709.5 nm input wavelengths.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

3D stray light distribution matrix obtained by using diagonal interpolation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cut-on filter signal before and after stray light correction.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Performance of the stray light correction matrix at the 407.2, 706.7, and 1025.4 nm argon lines.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d i , j = f LSF , i , j i IB f LSF , i , j , i IB ,
Y meas = Y IB + D · Y IB = [ 1 + D ] Y IB = A Y IB ,
Y IB = A 1 Y meas = C Y meas ,
Y ( n ) = x ( n ) * y ( n ) = i = n n x ( i ) y ( n i ) ,
Y = IFFT ( FFT ( x ) FFT ( y ) ) .

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