Abstract

Three-dimensional pseudo-bandgap polystyrene photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated by the self-assembly technique are used to design two models of microcavities, namely the double-layered and the triple-layered PhC heterostructures, to study the laser-induced emission from the embedded Rhodamine-B dye. The dye molecules in the colloids of these PhC matrices are excited with a Q-switched frequency- doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532nm, and the emission is recorded in different directions for different input powers. The spontaneous emission of the dye gets modified due to the inhomogeneous distribution of density of states in the PhC. The Bragg crystal planes serve as reflecting cavity mirrors for the embedded gain medium, and at higher pump powers, direction-dependent spectral narrowing of the emission spectrum is clearly observed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062(1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 2001).
  4. F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Laser emission from self-assembled active photonic crystal matrix,” J. Nanophoton. 4, 049506 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Yan, Z. Zhou, and X. S. Zhao, “Inward-growing self-assembly of colloidal crystal films on horizontal substrates,” Langmuir 21, 3158–3164 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystal heterostructures with a double photonic stop band,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 056102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Spectral narrowing and lasing threshold in self-assembled active photonic crystal,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2056–2060 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Laser emission from self-assembled active photonic crystal matrix,” J. Nanophoton. 4, 049506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L.-T. Shi, F. Jin, W.-Q. Chen, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Low threshold laser emission from dye-doped polymer thin films in photonic crystal cavity,” Proc. SPIE 7774, 77740V (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, A. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Song, and L. Jiang, “Coherent control of spontaneous emission by photonic crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 444, 287–291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystal heterostructures with a double photonic stop band,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Yan, Z. Zhou, and X. S. Zhao, “Inward-growing self-assembly of colloidal crystal films on horizontal substrates,” Langmuir 21, 3158–3164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. Q.

F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-Q.

L.-T. Shi, F. Jin, W.-Q. Chen, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Low threshold laser emission from dye-doped polymer thin films in photonic crystal cavity,” Proc. SPIE 7774, 77740V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Z.

F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.-M.

L.-T. Shi, F. Jin, W.-Q. Chen, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Low threshold laser emission from dye-doped polymer thin films in photonic crystal cavity,” Proc. SPIE 7774, 77740V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

M. Li, A. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Song, and L. Jiang, “Coherent control of spontaneous emission by photonic crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 444, 287–291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, F.

L.-T. Shi, F. Jin, W.-Q. Chen, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Low threshold laser emission from dye-doped polymer thin films in photonic crystal cavity,” Proc. SPIE 7774, 77740V (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 1995).

Kedia, S.

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Spectral narrowing and lasing threshold in self-assembled active photonic crystal,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2056–2060 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Laser emission from self-assembled active photonic crystal matrix,” J. Nanophoton. 4, 049506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. F.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, A. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Song, and L. Jiang, “Coherent control of spontaneous emission by photonic crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 444, 287–291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 1995).

Nair, R. V.

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystal heterostructures with a double photonic stop band,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ray, A. K.

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Spectral narrowing and lasing threshold in self-assembled active photonic crystal,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2056–2060 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Laser emission from self-assembled active photonic crystal matrix,” J. Nanophoton. 4, 049506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

Shi, L.-T.

L.-T. Shi, F. Jin, W.-Q. Chen, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Low threshold laser emission from dye-doped polymer thin films in photonic crystal cavity,” Proc. SPIE 7774, 77740V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, S.

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Spectral narrowing and lasing threshold in self-assembled active photonic crystal,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2056–2060 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Laser emission from self-assembled active photonic crystal matrix,” J. Nanophoton. 4, 049506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, A. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Song, and L. Jiang, “Coherent control of spontaneous emission by photonic crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 444, 287–291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vijaya, R.

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Spectral narrowing and lasing threshold in self-assembled active photonic crystal,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2056–2060 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Laser emission from self-assembled active photonic crystal matrix,” J. Nanophoton. 4, 049506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystal heterostructures with a double photonic stop band,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. Li, A. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Song, and L. Jiang, “Coherent control of spontaneous emission by photonic crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 444, 287–291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 1995).

Xia, A.

M. Li, A. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Song, and L. Jiang, “Coherent control of spontaneous emission by photonic crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 444, 287–291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Q.

Q. Yan, Z. Zhou, and X. S. Zhao, “Inward-growing self-assembly of colloidal crystal films on horizontal substrates,” Langmuir 21, 3158–3164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. S.

Q. Yan, Z. Zhou, and X. S. Zhao, “Inward-growing self-assembly of colloidal crystal films on horizontal substrates,” Langmuir 21, 3158–3164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.-S.

L.-T. Shi, F. Jin, W.-Q. Chen, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Low threshold laser emission from dye-doped polymer thin films in photonic crystal cavity,” Proc. SPIE 7774, 77740V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Q. Yan, Z. Zhou, and X. S. Zhao, “Inward-growing self-assembly of colloidal crystal films on horizontal substrates,” Langmuir 21, 3158–3164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Jin, Y. Song, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer film sandwiched by two opal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, “Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Li, A. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Song, and L. Jiang, “Coherent control of spontaneous emission by photonic crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 444, 287–291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystal heterostructures with a double photonic stop band,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Laser emission from self-assembled active photonic crystal matrix,” J. Nanophoton. 4, 049506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

Q. Yan, Z. Zhou, and X. S. Zhao, “Inward-growing self-assembly of colloidal crystal films on horizontal substrates,” Langmuir 21, 3158–3164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Kedia, R. Vijaya, A. K. Ray, and S. Sinha, “Spectral narrowing and lasing threshold in self-assembled active photonic crystal,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2056–2060 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L.-T. Shi, F. Jin, W.-Q. Chen, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Low threshold laser emission from dye-doped polymer thin films in photonic crystal cavity,” Proc. SPIE 7774, 77740V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 1995).

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) double-layered PhC and (b) triple-layered PhC. In (a) and (b), clear circles represent the bare PS colloids and the dotted circles represent dye-doped PS colloids.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental arrangement used in laser- induced emission studies. BD, beam dump; M 1 and M 2 , mirrors; N, 532 nm cutoff Notch filter; SP, spectrophotometer attached to the detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflection spectrum of double-layered PhC at different angles of incidence. (b) Thin and dashed lines are the intrinsic emission and reflection spectrum at 8 ° from double-layered PhC, respectively. The emission spectra of the single- and double-layered dye-doped PhC at 8 ° are shown with thick and dotted lines, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spontaneous emission of double-layered PhC at different angles. The dip in the spectrum shifts toward lower wavelength (shown with arrows) at larger angles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra of double-layered PhC at different excitation powers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Integrated emission of the double-layered PhC at different input pump powers shows a stimulated emission threshold at 142 mW .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflection spectra of bare PS PhC (dashed line), single dye-doped PhC (dotted line), and triple-layered PhC (solid line) at 8 ° .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Emission spectrum of triple-layered PhC (thick line) at 8 ° shows a dip in the wavelength range of the stop band (dashed line) as compared to the intrinsic emission (thin line) of the embedded dye.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Emission spectra of three-layered PhC at different pump powers.

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