Abstract

A pulsed, distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser centered at 957cm1 was used in combination with a wavelength modulation spectroscopic technique for the detection of acrylonitrile. The laser was excited with short current pulses (510ns), and the pulse amplitude was modulated with a linear subthreshold current ramp at 20Hz resulting in a 2.5cm1 frequency scan. This allowed the measurement of spectroscopic features of acrylonitrile with absorption line widths of 1cm1. A demodulation approach followed by numerical filtering was utilized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. We then superimposed a 10kHz sine wave current modulation on top of the 20Hz current ramp. The resulting high frequency temperature modulation of the DFB structure results in wavelength modulation. A minimum detectable absorbance of 105, corresponding to the sub 109 levels of acrylonitrile, was achieved with less than a minute averaging time.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Manne, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed, room temperature quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7750, 77500V(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Hancock, J. N. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Corrigan, M. Lwin, R. Huntley, A. Chhabra, F. Moshary, B. Gross, and S. Ahmed, “Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 73120P(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 339–343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path spatially resolved detection of atmospheric compounds using pulsed quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6604, 660424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path atmospheric spectroscopy using room temperature operated pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 63, 1002–1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jager, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9230–9237(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnerfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path trace gas measurements using a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 5830, 347–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared race-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907–913(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, “Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452–1461(2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. Curl, M. Fraser, and F. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329–3334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, E. Courtois, and P. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and L. Langford, “Characterization of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, and E. A. Whittaker, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, and W. Lenth, “Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6294–6302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556(1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1985

F. Cerceau, F. Raulin, R. Courtin, and D. Gautier, “Infrared spectra of gaseous mononitriles: application to the atmosphere of Titan,” Icarus 62, 207–220 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-Comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared race-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907–913(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S.

P. Corrigan, M. Lwin, R. Huntley, A. Chhabra, F. Moshary, B. Gross, and S. Ahmed, “Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 73120P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnerfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baeck, M. L.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baren, R. E.

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared race-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907–913(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared race-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907–913(2004).
[CrossRef]

Bomse, D. S.

Bonetti, Y.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556(1994).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerceau, F.

F. Cerceau, F. Raulin, R. Courtin, and D. Gautier, “Infrared spectra of gaseous mononitriles: application to the atmosphere of Titan,” Icarus 62, 207–220 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chhabra, A.

P. Corrigan, M. Lwin, R. Huntley, A. Chhabra, F. Moshary, B. Gross, and S. Ahmed, “Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 73120P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556(1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. M.

Chu, S. N. G.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corrigan, P.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Corrigan, M. Lwin, R. Huntley, A. Chhabra, F. Moshary, B. Gross, and S. Ahmed, “Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 73120P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Courtin, R.

F. Cerceau, F. Raulin, R. Courtin, and D. Gautier, “Infrared spectra of gaseous mononitriles: application to the atmosphere of Titan,” Icarus 62, 207–220 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, E.

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, E. Courtois, and P. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R.

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Day, T.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and L. Langford, “Characterization of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared race-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907–913(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556(1994).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M.

Gagliardi, G.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, D.

F. Cerceau, F. Raulin, R. Courtin, and D. Gautier, “Infrared spectra of gaseous mononitriles: application to the atmosphere of Titan,” Icarus 62, 207–220 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

P. Corrigan, M. Lwin, R. Huntley, A. Chhabra, F. Moshary, B. Gross, and S. Ahmed, “Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 73120P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, G.

G. Hancock, J. N. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harward, C. N.

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S.

D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared race-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907–913(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holler, F. J.

D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Saunders, 1998), pp. 11–19.

Huntley, R.

P. Corrigan, M. Lwin, R. Huntley, A. Chhabra, F. Moshary, B. Gross, and S. Ahmed, “Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 73120P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556(1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jager, W.

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jager, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9230–9237(2006).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, W.

J. Manne, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed, room temperature quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7750, 77500V(2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 339–343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. A.

Johnson, T. J.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

Kosterev, A.

Kosterev, A. A.

Labrie, D.

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-Comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langford, L.

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and L. Langford, “Characterization of the spectral behavior of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Commun. 197, 115–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langford, N.

Lau, B.

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 339–343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

Lim, A.

J. Manne, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed, room temperature quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7750, 77500V(2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 339–343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P. Q.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

Lwin, M.

P. Corrigan, M. Lwin, R. Huntley, A. Chhabra, F. Moshary, B. Gross, and S. Ahmed, “Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 73120P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lytkine, A.

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 339–343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jager, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A(2006).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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J. Manne, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed, room temperature quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7750, 77500V(2010).
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O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jager, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A(2006).
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J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9230–9237(2006).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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McManus, B.

D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3325–3335 (2004).
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J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
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R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
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A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
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J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
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Nelson, D.

D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
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R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Saunders, 1998), pp. 11–19.

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R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
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S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
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S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, E. Courtois, and P. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
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Rosen, D. I.

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnerfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 705–710 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Schilt, S.

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S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, E. Courtois, and P. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
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R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
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Shi, Q.

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
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J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
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J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
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Silva, M. L.

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnerfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 705–710 (2005).
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Simeonov, V.

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path spatially resolved detection of atmospheric compounds using pulsed quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6604, 660424 (2007).
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M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path atmospheric spectroscopy using room temperature operated pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 63, 1002–1008 (2006).
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M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path trace gas measurements using a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 5830, 347–351 (2005).
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Sivco, D. L.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
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C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
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J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556(1994).
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D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Saunders, 1998), pp. 11–19.

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A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
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Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Sonnerfroh, D. M.

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnerfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 705–710 (2005).
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Sukhorukov, O.

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jager, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9230–9237(2006).
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Tamassia, F.

G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A frequency-modulated quantum cascade laser for spectroscopy of CH4 and N2O isotopomers,” Isotopes Environmen. Health Stud. 41, 313–321 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path spatially resolved detection of atmospheric compounds using pulsed quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6604, 660424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path atmospheric spectroscopy using room temperature operated pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 63, 1002–1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path trace gas measurements using a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 5830, 347–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, E. Courtois, and P. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
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Tittel, F. K.

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

J. Manne, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed, room temperature quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7750, 77500V(2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 339–343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jager, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9230–9237(2006).
[CrossRef]

Urbanski, S.

D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path spatially resolved detection of atmospheric compounds using pulsed quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6604, 660424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path atmospheric spectroscopy using room temperature operated pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 63, 1002–1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path trace gas measurements using a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 5830, 347–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Helden, J. N.

G. Hancock, J. N. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. J.

G. Hancock, J. N. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared race-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907–913(2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. Curl, M. Fraser, and F. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329–3334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Yeung, J. K.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M.

D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parris, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zondlo, M. A.

D. J. Miller and M. A. Zondlo, “Open-path high sensitivity atmospheric ammonia sensing with a 9 μm quantum cascade laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Tech. Dig. (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThJ4.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 339–343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnerfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O’Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Tredicucci, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave and high power pulsed operation of index coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser at ∼8.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1430–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Hancock, J. N. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

China Opt. Eng.

A. P. M. Michel, P. Q. Liu, J. K. Yeung, P. Corrigan, M. L. Baeck, Z. Wang, T. Day, F. Moshary, C. F. Gmachl, and J. A. Smith, “Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing,” China Opt. Eng. 49, 111125(2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Proc. SPIE

J. Manne, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed, room temperature quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7750, 77500V(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for openand closed path measurement of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33(2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path spatially resolved detection of atmospheric compounds using pulsed quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6604, 660424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path trace gas measurements using a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 5830, 347–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, A. Mueller, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers for open and closed path measurements of atmospheric trace gases,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 22–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jager, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A(2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 60, 3325–3335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, E. Courtois, and P. Robert, “Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 58, 2533–2539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, and H. van den Bergh, “Open-path atmospheric spectroscopy using room temperature operated pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A: Mol. Spectrosc. 63, 1002–1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA), http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/.

D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Saunders, 1998), pp. 11–19.

D. J. Miller and M. A. Zondlo, “Open-path high sensitivity atmospheric ammonia sensing with a 9 μm quantum cascade laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Tech. Dig. (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThJ4.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for MWS with a pulsed QC laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mid-IR acrylonitrile absorption spectrum taken from the PNNL database. The inset gives a closer view of the strongest feature of acrylonitrile, which also lies in the tuning range of our laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Acrylonitrile absorption spectrum (PNNL) within the tuning range of our laser, together with a water absorption spectrum (HITRAN).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top panel shows optical fringes after the laser beam passes through a Ge etalon. The bottom panel shows the detector response (after demodulation) for direct absorption of CO 2 gas during application of a 20 Hz current ramp to the laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top panel shows the variation of the 2 f signal amplitude with the pulse repetition rate of the laser. The corresponding background signals measured at these pulse repetition rates are plotted in the bottom panel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

2 f signals measured at pulse repetition rates of 100 kHz and 1 MHz . The inset shows plots of the background signals measured at these repetition rates.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of the 2 f signal with the modulation index.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

2 f signals at different modulation indices: (a) 0.5, (b) 1.8, (c) 2.4, and (d) 4. The corresponding background signals are shown in the panels on the right side.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Acrylonitrile spectrum taken from the PNNL database (solid line), simulated 2 f demodulated spectrum from the PNNL database (dashed line), and the 2 f demodulated spectrum measured at an acrylonitrile concentration of 250 ppb .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

2 f demodulated spectra measured at different concentrations of acrylonitrile (500, 250, and 125 ppb ) in the acrylonitrile/ N 2 gas mixture.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calibration curve obtained from the WMS measurements, along with a linear fit.

Equations (1)

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D L = k σ m ,

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