Abstract

We examine the correlation between the plasmon field distribution and the sensitivity enhancement for both reflection- and transmission-type localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors with surface-relief gold nanogratings. In our calculation, the near-field characteristics are obtained from the finite-difference time-domain method and compared with the refractive index sensitivity as a unit target sample moves along the sensor surface. The numerical results show that the highest enhancement of sensitivity is found at the lower grating corners where an interplay between the target sample and the locally enhanced field can occur efficiently. This study suggests that, by localizing biomolecular interactions to the highly enhanced field, we can achieve a significantly improved LSPR detection with high sensitivity and a great linearity in a wide dynamic range.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Kretschmann, “Decay of non radiative surface plasmons into light on rough silver films. comparison of experimental and theoretical results,” Opt. Commun. 6, 185–187 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920–930 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. M. Byun, S. M. Jang, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Effect of target localization on the sensitivity of a localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on subwavelength nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1027–1034 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780–1787 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Li, “Multilayer modal method for diffraction gratings of arbitrary profile, depth, and permittivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2581–2591 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Li and C. W. Haggans, “Convergence of the coupled-wave method for metallic lamellar diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1184–1189 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nmperiod silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142–143 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).
  18. J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, and S. J. Kim, “Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal–dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2846–2854(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17, 5326–5333(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. M. Kontio, H. Husu, J. Simonen, M. J. Huttunen, J. Tommila, M. Pessa, and M. Kauranen, “Nanoimprint fabrication of gold nanocones with ∼10 nm tips for enhanced optical interactions,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1979–1981 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?,” Opt. Express 17, 16505–16517 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17, 5326–5333(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nmperiod silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

1986

1972

E. Kretschmann, “Decay of non radiative surface plasmons into light on rough silver films. comparison of experimental and theoretical results,” Opt. Commun. 6, 185–187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, K. M.

S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, and S. J. Kim, “Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal–dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2846–2854(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Byun, S. M. Jang, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Effect of target localization on the sensitivity of a localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on subwavelength nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1027–1034 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, C.-H.

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17, 5326–5333(2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. H.

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Haes, A. J.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haggans, C. W.

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nmperiod silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoa, X. D.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?,” Opt. Express 17, 16505–16517 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Husu, H.

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huttunen, M. J.

Jang, S. M.

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nmperiod silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

Kim, C.-J.

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17, 5326–5333(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, and S. J. Kim, “Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal–dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2846–2854(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Byun, S. M. Jang, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Effect of target localization on the sensitivity of a localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on subwavelength nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1027–1034 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. J.

K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. A.

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. G.

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

Kirk, A. G.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kontio, J. M.

Kottmann, J. P.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “Decay of non radiative surface plasmons into light on rough silver films. comparison of experimental and theoretical results,” Opt. Commun. 6, 185–187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, K.

K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Moon, S.

K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, Y.

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Pessa, M.

Pile, D. F. P.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piliarik, M.

Sai, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nmperiod silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuler, M. L.

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonen, J.

Smith, D. R.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabrizian, M.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tommila, J.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yonzon, C. R.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nmperiod silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S.

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nmperiod silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Ma, D. J. Kim, K. Kim, S. Moon, and D. Kim, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanomedicine

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1, 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kim, K. M. Byun, K. Kim, S. M. Jang, K. Ma, Y. Oh, D. Kim, S. G. Kim, M. L. Shuler, and S. J. Kim, “Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays,” Nanotechnology 21, 355503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17, 5326–5333(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

E. Kretschmann, “Decay of non radiative surface plasmons into light on rough silver films. comparison of experimental and theoretical results,” Opt. Commun. 6, 185–187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (5322 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2667 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) reflection-type and (b) transmission-type LSPR sensing configurations. For reflection type, TM-polarized light with λ = 633 nm is incident through gold/SF10 substrate with an angle of θ. Gold nanogratings with a thickness of d g = 10 nm are regularly patterned on the planar gold film (thickness d f = 40 nm ) in PBS environments. The grating structure of a rectangular profile has a period of Λ = 60 nm and a duty cycle = 0.5 . For transmission type, TM-polarized white light source is normally incident to the gold nanogratings directly deposited on SF10 glass substrate. Geometric parameters of a gold nanograting are the same as those for the reflection type.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonance angle shift characteristic for reflection-type LSPR substrate when a 2 nm × 2 nm dielectric element moves along the sensor surface. When its refractive index increases from 1.40 to 1.60, the highest sensitivity is obtained to be 1.95 ° / RIU at the lower corners of a gold nanograting and the minimum sensitivity of 0.05 ° / RIU is found at the center areas between gold nanogratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Horizontal and vertical field distributions of E X for reflection-type LSPR structures with a gold grating of Λ = 60 nm , duty cycle = 0.5 , and d g = 10 nm . The two-dimensional image obtained from the FDTD calculation is normalized by the field amplitude of 30.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real part of the field component E X in the same LSPR structure as Fig. 3. Media 1 shows time-varying near-field characteristics induced by a gold nanograting and a planar gold film when the field amplitude is normalized by a value of 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resonance wavelength shift characteristic for transmission-type LSPR substrate when a 2 nm × 2 nm dielectric element moves along the sensor surface. When its refractive index increases from 1.40 to 1.60, the highest sensitivity is obtained to be 5.0 nm / RIU at the lower corners of a gold nanograting and the minimum sensitivity of 0.0 nm / RIU is found at the center areas between gold nanogratings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Horizontal and vertical field distributions of E X for transmission-type LSPR structures with a gold grating of Λ = 60 nm , duty cycle = 0.5 , and d g = 10 nm . The two-dimensional image obtained from the FDTD calculation is normalized by the field amplitude of 20.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Real part of the field component E X in the same LSPR structure as Fig. 6. Media 2 shows time-varying near-field characteristics induced by a gold nanograting when the field amplitude is normalized by a value of 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance curves of the reflection-type LSPR structure as a refractive index n d of the dielectric element increases from 1.40 to 1.60. The inset shows the linear regression analysis between n d and the resonance angle shift.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Extinction spectra of the transmission-type LSPR structure as a refractive index n d of the dielectric element increases from 1.40 to 1.60. The inset shows the linear regression analysis between n d and the resonance wavelength shift.

Metrics