Abstract

A method to study the solar flux distributions of the solar images reflected by mirrors with different dielectric thicknesses is proposed in this paper. An optical scanner, also known as a flux mapping system, capable of acquiring the flux distribution pattern of a light source in a two-dimensional flat surface, has been designed and constructed. The optical scanner can measure the profile of flux distribution at reasonably high resolution with fewer photo-sensors with a fast scanning speed of several seconds. The real time measurement results of solar images projected by mirrors with dielectric thicknesses, i.e., 3mm, 4mm, 5mm and 6mm, have been performed to analyze their surface qualities.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. A. Estrada, O. A. Jaramillo, R. Acosta, and C. A. Arancibia-Bulnes, “Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements,” Solar Energy 81, 1306–1313 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, “An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: A photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere,” Solar Energy 72, 187–193 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Parretta, C. Privato, G. Nenna, A. Antonini, and M. Stefancich, “Monitoring of concentrated radiation beam for photovoltaic and thermal solar energy conversion applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7885–7897 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. K. Chong, F. L. Siaw, C. W. Wong, and G. S. Wong, “Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Energy 34, 1364–1370(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Optical characterization of nonimaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 132, 011011 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Solar flux distribution analysis of non-imaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2010), pp. 3013–3018.
  7. K. J. Riffelmann, A. Neumann, and M. Wittkowski, “PARASCAN: a new parabolic trough flux scanner,” presented at the ISES Solar World Congress, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2003.

2010 (1)

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Optical characterization of nonimaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 132, 011011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. K. Chong, F. L. Siaw, C. W. Wong, and G. S. Wong, “Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Energy 34, 1364–1370(2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. A. Estrada, O. A. Jaramillo, R. Acosta, and C. A. Arancibia-Bulnes, “Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements,” Solar Energy 81, 1306–1313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, “An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: A photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere,” Solar Energy 72, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Acosta, R.

C. A. Estrada, O. A. Jaramillo, R. Acosta, and C. A. Arancibia-Bulnes, “Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements,” Solar Energy 81, 1306–1313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antonini, A.

Arancibia-Bulnes, C. A.

C. A. Estrada, O. A. Jaramillo, R. Acosta, and C. A. Arancibia-Bulnes, “Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements,” Solar Energy 81, 1306–1313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chong, K. K.

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Optical characterization of nonimaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 132, 011011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, F. L. Siaw, C. W. Wong, and G. S. Wong, “Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Energy 34, 1364–1370(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Solar flux distribution analysis of non-imaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2010), pp. 3013–3018.

Estrada, C. A.

C. A. Estrada, O. A. Jaramillo, R. Acosta, and C. A. Arancibia-Bulnes, “Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements,” Solar Energy 81, 1306–1313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferriere, A.

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, “An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: A photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere,” Solar Energy 72, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaramillo, O. A.

C. A. Estrada, O. A. Jaramillo, R. Acosta, and C. A. Arancibia-Bulnes, “Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements,” Solar Energy 81, 1306–1313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nenna, G.

Neumann, A.

K. J. Riffelmann, A. Neumann, and M. Wittkowski, “PARASCAN: a new parabolic trough flux scanner,” presented at the ISES Solar World Congress, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2003.

Parretta, A.

Privato, C.

Riffelmann, K. J.

K. J. Riffelmann, A. Neumann, and M. Wittkowski, “PARASCAN: a new parabolic trough flux scanner,” presented at the ISES Solar World Congress, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2003.

Rivoire, B.

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, “An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: A photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere,” Solar Energy 72, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siaw, F. L.

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Optical characterization of nonimaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 132, 011011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, F. L. Siaw, C. W. Wong, and G. S. Wong, “Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Energy 34, 1364–1370(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Solar flux distribution analysis of non-imaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2010), pp. 3013–3018.

Stefancich, M.

Wittkowski, M.

K. J. Riffelmann, A. Neumann, and M. Wittkowski, “PARASCAN: a new parabolic trough flux scanner,” presented at the ISES Solar World Congress, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2003.

Wong, C. W.

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Optical characterization of nonimaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 132, 011011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, F. L. Siaw, C. W. Wong, and G. S. Wong, “Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Energy 34, 1364–1370(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Solar flux distribution analysis of non-imaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2010), pp. 3013–3018.

Wong, G. S.

K. K. Chong, F. L. Siaw, C. W. Wong, and G. S. Wong, “Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Energy 34, 1364–1370(2009).
[CrossRef]

Yew, T. K.

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Optical characterization of nonimaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 132, 011011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Solar flux distribution analysis of non-imaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2010), pp. 3013–3018.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Solar Energy Engin. (1)

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Optical characterization of nonimaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 132, 011011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Energy (1)

K. K. Chong, F. L. Siaw, C. W. Wong, and G. S. Wong, “Design and construction of non-imaging planar concentrator for concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Energy 34, 1364–1370(2009).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy (2)

C. A. Estrada, O. A. Jaramillo, R. Acosta, and C. A. Arancibia-Bulnes, “Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements,” Solar Energy 81, 1306–1313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, “An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: A photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere,” Solar Energy 72, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. K. Chong, C. W. Wong, F. L. Siaw, and T. K. Yew, “Solar flux distribution analysis of non-imaging planar concentrator for the application in concentrator photovoltaic system,” in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2010), pp. 3013–3018.

K. J. Riffelmann, A. Neumann, and M. Wittkowski, “PARASCAN: a new parabolic trough flux scanner,” presented at the ISES Solar World Congress, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2003.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Responsivity curve of silicon planar photodiode with the sensitivity spectral ranging from 400 nm to 1100 nm and maximum sensitivity at wavelength 930 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram to show the major components of the novel optical scanner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small cell representing the position and the area of each measurement during the scanning process. The square cells denote the positions at which the readings of solar irradiance are acquired and subsequently sent to the microcontroller. During the process of data acquisition, the readings are collected simultaneously for all the photodiodes arranged in the same column and then the scanner is shifted to the next column after the readings are stored.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for calibrating the silicon planar photodiodes that is mounted on the sun-tracker by using pyranometer with the same field of field as that of photodiodes as a reference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration graph of one of the 25 silicon planar photodiodes installed in the optical scanner.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The circuit diagram of control system in the optical scanner.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup of the optical scanner installed at the receiver plane of Nonimaging Planar Concentrator.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Prototype of NiPC with all the mirrors blocked with black plastic cover except the specimen mirror. The specimen flat mirror with different thickness was fixed to the concentrator frame and tested under the sun.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The flow chart of the algorithm to show the operation of the optical scanner.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cartesian coordinate system ( x , y , z ) named as the main coordinate system is defined in the plane of the NiPC with its origin located at the center while the subcoordinate system ( x , y , z ) is defined at the local facet mirror.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The simulated result of solar flux distri bution profile for flat mirror with dimension 20 cm × 25 cm and perfect reflectivity ( R = 100 % ).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Solar flux distribution with the average irradiance 876 Wm 2 and standard deviation 18 Wm 2 acquired by optical scanner for direct sunlight with the GSI 888 Wm 2 and DNI 666 Wm 2 .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectrum of sunlight before and after reflection by the mirror.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Solar flux distribution map of flat mirror with dimension 20 cm × 25 cm and dielectric thickness 3 mm acquired by the optical scanner. (b) Solar flux distribution map of flat mirror with dimension 20 cm × 25 cm and dielectric thickness 4 mm acquired by the optical scanner. (c) Solar flux distribution map of flat mirror with dimension 20 cm × 25 cm and dielectric thickness 5 mm acquired by the optical scanner. (d) Solar flux distribution map of flat mirror with dimension 20 cm × 25 cm and dielectric thickness 6 mm acquired by the optical scanner.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Bar chart to show the comparison of average solar concentration ratio for the flat mirror with different dielectric thicknesses. (b) Bar chart to show the comparison of ratio of standard deviation per average solar irradiance for the flat mirror with different dielectric thicknesses.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Measured Data for Mirrors with Different Thicknesses

Equations (3)

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Light intensity , I ( Wm 2 ) = R e × I ph × Gain,
C = n = 1 N area of reflective point ( cm 2 ) area of receiver pixel ( cm 2 ) × cos θ P ,
α total = tan 1 ( d f ) = tan 1 ( 0.35 m 4.5 m ) = 4.45 ° ,

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