Abstract

The enhanced Raman scattering (ERS) performance of individual Ag nanowire (NW) tips with the shape of a bulb, a crown, a pencil, and a nanoparticle randomly decorated crown was numerically investigated by the finite element method. Their polarized surface ERS is revealed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which is affected by the incident light wavelength and polarization and the shape of the tips. In our results, the pencil tip presents strong ERS effects with optimized ERS enhancement and lateral spatial resolution of about 0.3×109 and 1.3nm, respectively. Effects of the pencil tip geometry (including the shape, angle, length, and size) on its tip ERS behavior are discussed as well. The present work also holds promise for individual Ag NW tip applications in microscope and spectroscope imaging and improvement, etc.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. J. Lee, J. M. Baik, and M. Moskovits, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a silver-nanoparticle-decorated single silver nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 3244–3247 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. R. Tao and P. D. Yang, “Polarized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled metallic nanowire,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15687–15690 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “High-resolution apertureless near-field optical imaging using gold nanosphere probes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19804–19806 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. D. Cui, W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, R. Zenobi, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Tuning the resonance frequency of Ag-coated dielectric tips,” Opt. Express 15, 8309–8316 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, and H. P. Lu, “Finite element method simulation of the field distribution for AFM tip-enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scanning microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Notingher and A. Elfick, “Effect of sample and substrate properties on the electric field enhancement at the apex of SPM tips,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15699–15706 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Finite element simulations of tip-enhanced Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6692–6698 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4739 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. M. Tong, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Atomic force microscope manipulation of gold nanoparticles for controlled Raman enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. Raschke, “Scanning-probe Raman spectroscopy with single- molecule sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chau, M. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Three dimensional analysis of surface plasmon resonance modes on a gold nanorod,” Appl. Opt. 48, 617–622 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. F. Chau, H. H. Yeh, and D. P. Tsai, “Near-field optical properties and surface plasmon effects generated by a dielectric hole in a silver-shell nanocylinder pair,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5557–5561 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Atomic force microscope manipulation of gold nanoparticles for controlled Raman enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lee, J. M. Baik, and M. Moskovits, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a silver-nanoparticle-decorated single silver nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 3244–3247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Cui, W. H. Zhang, B. S. Yeo, R. Zenobi, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Tuning the resonance frequency of Ag-coated dielectric tips,” Opt. Express 15, 8309–8316 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. Raschke, “Scanning-probe Raman spectroscopy with single- molecule sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “High-resolution apertureless near-field optical imaging using gold nanosphere probes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19804–19806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Finite element simulations of tip-enhanced Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6692–6698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

I. Notingher and A. Elfick, “Effect of sample and substrate properties on the electric field enhancement at the apex of SPM tips,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15699–15706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tao and P. D. Yang, “Polarized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled metallic nanowire,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15687–15690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, and H. P. Lu, “Finite element method simulation of the field distribution for AFM tip-enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scanning microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4739 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. P.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baik, J. M.

S. J. Lee, J. M. Baik, and M. Moskovits, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a silver-nanoparticle-decorated single silver nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 3244–3247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behr, N.

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. Raschke, “Scanning-probe Raman spectroscopy with single- molecule sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chau, Y. F.

Chen, H. Y.

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. W.

Chen, T.

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4739 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cui, X. D.

Dasari, R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Downes, A.

A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Finite element simulations of tip-enhanced Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6692–6698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreyer, J.

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. Raschke, “Scanning-probe Raman spectroscopy with single- molecule sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. L.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duyne, R. P. V.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elfick, A.

A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Finite element simulations of tip-enhanced Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6692–6698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Notingher and A. Elfick, “Effect of sample and substrate properties on the electric field enhancement at the apex of SPM tips,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15699–15706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erni, D.

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. G.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gersten, J.

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Grady, N. K.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, C.

Halas, N. J.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayazawa, N.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henry, A. I.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollars, C. W.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, H. L.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T. R.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ihee, H.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4739 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kang, T.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasim, J.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Z. H.

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “High-resolution apertureless near-field optical imaging using gold nanosphere probes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19804–19806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klymyshyn, N.

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, and H. P. Lu, “Finite element method simulation of the field distribution for AFM tip-enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scanning microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lane, S. M.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, J. M. Baik, and M. Moskovits, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a silver-nanoparticle-decorated single silver nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 3244–3247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leone, S. R.

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “High-resolution apertureless near-field optical imaging using gold nanosphere probes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19804–19806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. F.

L. M. Tong, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Atomic force microscope manipulation of gold nanoparticles for controlled Raman enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. P.

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, and H. P. Lu, “Finite element method simulation of the field distribution for AFM tip-enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scanning microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, J. M.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micic, M.

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, and H. P. Lu, “Finite element method simulation of the field distribution for AFM tip-enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scanning microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, P.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskovits, M.

S. J. Lee, J. M. Baik, and M. Moskovits, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a silver-nanoparticle-decorated single silver nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 3244–3247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. Raschke, “Scanning-probe Raman spectroscopy with single- molecule sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nitzan, A.

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notingher, I.

I. Notingher and A. Elfick, “Effect of sample and substrate properties on the electric field enhancement at the apex of SPM tips,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15699–15706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oubre, C.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Q. H.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Purnawirman,

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M.

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. Raschke, “Scanning-probe Raman spectroscopy with single- molecule sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, B.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salter, D.

A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Finite element simulations of tip-enhanced Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6692–6698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekkat, Z.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z. X.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, D. N.

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. D.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, and H. P. Lu, “Finite element method simulation of the field distribution for AFM tip-enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scanning microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talley, C. E.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, A. R.

A. R. Tao and P. D. Yang, “Polarized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled metallic nanowire,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15687–15690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z. Q.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Atomic force microscope manipulation of gold nanoparticles for controlled Raman enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

Varadwaj, KSK.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. Y.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wustholz, K. L.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Z. X.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. P.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

A. R. Tao and P. D. Yang, “Polarized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled metallic nanowire,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15687–15690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, H. H.

Yeo, B. S.

Yoon, I.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, Y. M.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

Zhang, H. M.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. H.

Zhu, T.

L. M. Tong, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Atomic force microscope manipulation of gold nanoparticles for controlled Raman enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, M. D.

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

J. M. McMahon, A. I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. V. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394, 1819–1825(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. M. Tong, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Atomic force microscope manipulation of gold nanoparticles for controlled Raman enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z. Liu, M. D. Zhuang, H. M. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. X. Xie, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, and Z. Q. Tian, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for investigating adsorbed species on a single-crystal surface using electrochemically prepared Au tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

P. Mohanty, I. Yoon, T. Kang, K. Seo, KSK. Varadwaj, W. Choi, Q. H. Park, J. P. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Simple vapor-phase synthesis of single-crystalline Ag nanowires and single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9576–9577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. R. Tao and P. D. Yang, “Polarized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled metallic nanowire,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15687–15690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “High-resolution apertureless near-field optical imaging using gold nanosphere probes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19804–19806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, and H. P. Lu, “Finite element method simulation of the field distribution for AFM tip-enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scanning microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Notingher and A. Elfick, “Effect of sample and substrate properties on the electric field enhancement at the apex of SPM tips,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15699–15706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Downes, D. Salter, and A. Elfick, “Finite element simulations of tip-enhanced Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6692–6698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

Y. M. You, Purnawirman, H. L. Hu, J. Kasim, H. P. Yang, C. L. Du, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using single-crystalline Ag nanowire as tip,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1156–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

S. J. Lee, J. M. Baik, and M. Moskovits, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a silver-nanoparticle-decorated single silver nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 3244–3247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimmer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5, 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183, 333–336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

C. C. Neacsu, J. Dreyer, N. Behr, and M. Raschke, “Scanning-probe Raman spectroscopy with single- molecule sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4739 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics

C. L. Du, Y. M. You, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, H. L. Hu, D. N. Shi, H. Y. Chen, and Z. X. Shen, “Individual Ag nanowire dimer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics , doi: 10.1007/s11468-011-9261-0 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(1) Schematic geometries of the four individual Ag NW tips and (21), (22) their electric field ( | E | ) distributions under 532 nm light localized excitation. (1)(d) is the side view (yz cross section) of the corresponding NW tip. (21)  θ = 0 , (22)  θ = 90 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polar plot of the calculated NSM for the four individual Ag NW tips with shapes of bulb (a), crown (b), and pencil (c) under (1) 532 and (2)  514 nm localized light excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Functions of | E | max and C versus (1) the tip angle φ and (2) the tip length L + L (solid and dashed lines for 532 and 514 nm light excitation, respectively). The inset of (1) schematically labels the different geometry parameters for the pencil NW tip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Functions of | E | max and C versus the scale size M under 532 nm light excitation.

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