Abstract

We present a bilayer fractal structure for the realization of multiband left-handed metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. The structure is composed of metallic H-fractal pairs separated by a dielectric layer. The electromagnetic properties of periodic H-fractal pairs have been investigated by numerical simulation. The period in the propagation direction is extremely small as compared to the wavelength at the operational frequency. Under the electromagnetic wave normal incidence, the material exhibits negative refraction simultaneously around the frequencies of 0.10 and 0.15THz for parallel polarization, and around the frequencies of 0.19 and 0.38THz for perpendicular polarization. The design provides a left-handed metamaterial suitable for multiband and compact devices at terahertz frequencies.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

Y. Yuan, C. Bingham, T. Tyler, S. Palit, T. H. Hand, W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, N. M. Jokerst, and S. A. Cummer, “Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Express 16, 9746–9752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, T. Hu, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz application,” Opt. Express 16, 18565–18575(2008).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116(2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. M. Hao, L. Zhou, and C. T. Chan, “An effective-medium model for high-impedance surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 281–284(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3620–3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Resonant transmission of microwaves through subwavelength fractal slits in a metallic plate,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 153406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Theoretical studies on the transmission and reflection properties of metallic planar fractals,” J. Phys. D 37, 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Multiband subwavelength magnetic reflectors based on fractals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3257–3259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Averitt, R. D.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bingham, C.

Bingham, C. M.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

J. M. Hao, L. Zhou, and C. T. Chan, “An effective-medium model for high-impedance surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 281–284(2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Resonant transmission of microwaves through subwavelength fractal slits in a metallic plate,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 153406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Theoretical studies on the transmission and reflection properties of metallic planar fractals,” J. Phys. D 37, 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Multiband subwavelength magnetic reflectors based on fractals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3257–3259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cojocaru, E.

Cui, T. J.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

Economon, E. N.

Economou, E. N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, W.

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegoczyk, T. M.

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J. Q.

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hand, T. H.

Hao, J. M.

J. M. Hao, L. Zhou, and C. T. Chan, “An effective-medium model for high-impedance surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 281–284(2007).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, B.

W. Wen, L. Zhou, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Resonant transmission of microwaves through subwavelength fractal slits in a metallic plate,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 153406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.

Huangfu, J.

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. X.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

Kafesaki, M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3620–3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. L.

Long, L. L.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ordal, M. A.

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

Palit, S.

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, L.

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

W. Wen, L. Zhou, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Resonant transmission of microwaves through subwavelength fractal slits in a metallic plate,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 153406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Theoretical studies on the transmission and reflection properties of metallic planar fractals,” J. Phys. D 37, 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Multiband subwavelength magnetic reflectors based on fractals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3257–3259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, C. Bingham, T. Tyler, S. Palit, T. H. Hand, W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, N. M. Jokerst, and S. A. Cummer, “Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Express 16, 9746–9752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3620–3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, T.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, C. A.

Wen, W.

W. Wen, L. Zhou, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Resonant transmission of microwaves through subwavelength fractal slits in a metallic plate,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 153406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Multiband subwavelength magnetic reflectors based on fractals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3257–3259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X. M.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. M. Bingham, T. Hu, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz application,” Opt. Express 16, 18565–18575(2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. P.

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116(2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. F.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3620–3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

J. M. Hao, L. Zhou, and C. T. Chan, “An effective-medium model for high-impedance surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 281–284(2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Resonant transmission of microwaves through subwavelength fractal slits in a metallic plate,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 153406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Theoretical studies on the transmission and reflection properties of metallic planar fractals,” J. Phys. D 37, 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Multiband subwavelength magnetic reflectors based on fractals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3257–3259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, W. R.

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116(2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. M. Hao, L. Zhou, and C. T. Chan, “An effective-medium model for high-impedance surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 281–284(2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegoczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zhu, X. P. Zhao, and J. Q. Guo, “Multibands of negative refractive indexes in the left-handed metamaterials with multiple dendritic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241116(2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Multiband subwavelength magnetic reflectors based on fractals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3257–3259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

L. Zhou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Theoretical studies on the transmission and reflection properties of metallic planar fractals,” J. Phys. D 37, 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

W. Wen, L. Zhou, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Resonant transmission of microwaves through subwavelength fractal slits in a metallic plate,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 153406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: the fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605(2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wen, L. Zhou, J. Li, W. Ge, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Subwavelength photonic band gaps from planar fractals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 223901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the bilayer fractal structure array and the unit cell with geometric parameters a 1 = a 2 = 100 μm , a 3 = a 4 = 70 μm , and w = 20 μm . The structure consists of patterned metallic double layers (yellow, gold) separated by a dielectric layer (blue, GaAs).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnitude of scattering parameters ( S 11 and S 12 ) and retrieved effective EM parameters for incident polarization parallel to the y axis ( E ): refractive index (n), permeability (μ), and permittivity (ε). The black solid lines show the real part of the EM parameters, the red dashed lines show the imaginary part.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface current distribution for E polarization at magnetic resonance frequency of (a) 0.10 and (b)  0.15 THz , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated transmission spectra of a monolayer structure and (b) effective real permittivity of a bilayer structure and a monolayer structure for E polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Magnitude of scattering parameters ( S 11 and S 12 ) and retrieved effective EM parameters for incident polarization perpendicular to the y axis ( E ): refractive index (n), permeability (μ), and permittivity (ε). The black solid lines show the real part of the EM parameters, the red dashed lines show the imaginary part.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface current distribution for E polarization at magnetic resonance frequency of (a) 0.15 and (b)  0.38 THz , respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Simulated transmission spectra of a monolayer structure and (b) effective permittivity of a bilayer structure and a monolayer structure for E polarization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

FOM (a) for E polarization and (b) for E polarization. Here is only shown during the frequency bands with negative refractive index.

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