Abstract

The operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) uses the predefined aerosol models to retrieve aerosol optical properties, and their accuracy depends on how well the aerosol models can represent the real aerosol optical properties. In this paper, we developed a method to evaluate the aerosol models (combined with the model selection methodology) by simulating the aerosol retrieval using the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. Our method can evaluate the ability of aerosol models themselves, independent of the sensor performance. Two types of aerosol models for SeaWiFS and MODIS operational atmospheric correction algorithms are evaluated over global open oceans, namely the GW1994 models and Ahmad2010 models. The results show that GW1994 models significantly overestimate the aerosol optical thicknesses and underestimate the Ångström exponent, which is caused by the underestimation of the scattering phase function. However, Ahmad2010 models can significantly reduce the overestimation of the aerosol optical thickness and the underestimation of the Ångström exponent as a whole, but this improvement depends on the backscattering angle. Ahmad2010 models have a significant improvement in the retrieval of the aerosol optical thickness at a backscattering angle less than 140°. For a backscattering angle larger than 140°, GW1994 models are better at retrieving the aerosol optical thickness than the Ahmad2010 models.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  25. P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260(1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M.Wang, ed., “Atmospheric correction for remotely-sensed ocean-colour products,” Rep. 10 (International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, 2010), p. 78.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, and A. Sinyuk, “Aerosol properties from EP-TOMS near UV observations,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 1771–1780 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Smirnov, “Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

1997 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1992 (2)

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” Tech. Memo 104566 (NASA, 1992).

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1983 (2)

1980 (1)

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Report No. AFGL-TR-79-0214(United States Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1979).

Ahmad, Z.

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, S.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. B.

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, and A. Sinyuk, “Aerosol properties from EP-TOMS near UV observations,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 1771–1780 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, and W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleave, M. L.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Clerici, M.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Croot, P.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crosby, D.

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubovik, O.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, S. Z.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” Tech. Memo 104566 (NASA, 1992).

Evans, R. H.

Fargion, G.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” Tech. Memo 104566 (NASA, 1992).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Report No. AFGL-TR-79-0214(United States Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1979).

Franz, B. A.

Frouin, R.

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giles, D. M.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ginoux, P.

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goes, J. I.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Estimating aerosol optical properties over the oceans with the multiangle imaging spectroadiometer: some preliminary studies,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4042–4057 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Radiance reflected from the ocean-atmosphere system: synthesis from individual components of the aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7088–7095 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, and W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, W. W.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” Tech. Memo 104566 (NASA, 1992).

Halthore, R. N.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, M.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, and A. Sinyuk, “Aerosol properties from EP-TOMS near UV observations,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 1771–1780 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Holben, B. N.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” Tech. Memo 104566 (NASA, 1992).

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichoku, C.

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jourdin, F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuring, N.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

Larouche, P.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macke, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matarrese, R.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. B. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” Tech. Memo 104566 (NASA, 1992).

Mélin, F.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moorthy, K. K.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. B.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piketh, S.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proshutinsky, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, P. K.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radionov, V. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reagon, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L. A.

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, E. J.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakerin, S. M.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sapper, J.

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwindling, M.

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sciare, J.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Report No. AFGL-TR-79-0214(United States Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1979).

Sinyuk, A.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, and A. Sinyuk, “Aerosol properties from EP-TOMS near UV observations,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 1771–1780 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, “Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T. J.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L.

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanre, D.

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, O.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, and A. Sinyuk, “Aerosol properties from EP-TOMS near UV observations,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 1771–1780 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Werdell, J.

Werdell, P. J.

B. A. Franz, S. B. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, T. X.

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zielinski, T.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, and A. Sinyuk, “Aerosol properties from EP-TOMS near UV observations,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 1771–1780 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Radiance reflected from the ocean-atmosphere system: synthesis from individual components of the aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7088–7095 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, and W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, S. B. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Estimating aerosol optical properties over the oceans with the multiangle imaging spectroadiometer: some preliminary studies,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4042–4057 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eos Trans. AGU (1)

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Chu, Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben, “Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (3)

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. N. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurement,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Zhao, L. Stowe, A. Smirnov, D. Crosby, J. Sapper, and C. McClain, “Development of a global validation package for satellite oceanic aerosol optical thickness retrieval based on AERONET observations and its application to NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 294–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in marine environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

A. Smirnov, “Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database,” Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagon, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sea Technol. (1)

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Other (3)

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” Tech. Memo 104566 (NASA, 1992).

M.Wang, ed., “Atmospheric correction for remotely-sensed ocean-colour products,” Rep. 10 (International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, 2010), p. 78.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Report No. AFGL-TR-79-0214(United States Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1979).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Map of the selected AERONET stations that are far from the mainland.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Accumulative frequencies of the selected aerosol models for 11 AERONET stations by (a) GW1994 models and (b) Ahmad2010 models. The sum of the frequency for each station is normalized to the unit. The index of the aerosol models corresponds to Table 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the AOTs at 440, 675, and 870 nm retrieved by the aerosol models and the in situ values for all the selected 11 AERONET stations. The dashed line is a 1 1 line. The left panel contains the results of the AOTs retrieved by GW1994 aerosol models, while the right panel contains the results of the Ahmad2010 aerosol models.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the Ångström exponent at 440 nm retrieved by aerosol models and the in situ values for all the selected 11 AERONET stations. The horizontal lines in the boxes denote the twenty-fifth, fiftieth, and seventy-fifth percentile values; the error bars denote the fifth and ninety-fifth percentile values; the two symbols below the fifth percentile error bars denote the zeroth and first percentile values; the two symbols above the ninety-fifth percentile error bars denote the ninety-ninth and one hundredth percentiles; the solid square symbols in the boxes denote the mean value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the weight-averaged ω a P a for all the 11 stations between the aerosol models and the in situ value of AERONET. (a)  440 nm ; (b)  870 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency distributions of the scattering angle with different solar and satellite sensor viewing geometries. (a) Backscattering angle α distribution, (b) forward-scattering angle α + distribution, (c) backscattering angle distribution with forward-scattering angle less than 10 ° . The black curves in (a) and (b) represent the actual frequency distribution, while the red curves are the corresponding Gaussian fit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the AOTs at 870 nm retrieved by aerosol models and the in situ values for all 11 stations with backscattering angle less than 140 ° . The dashed line is a 1 1 line. (a) GW1994 models; (b) Ahmad2010 models.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the AOTs at 870 nm retrieved by aerosol models and the in situ values for all 11 stations with backscattering angle larger than 140 ° . The dashed line is a 1 1 line. (a) GW1994 models; (b) Ahmad2010 models.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Information of the Selected AERONET Stations and Effective Records

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Table 2 Definition of the GW1994 and Ahmad2010 Aerosol Models

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Table 3 Mean Value and Standard Deviation of the AOT and Ångström Exponent Measured by AERONET and the Mean Bias and Standard Deviation of the AOT and Ångström Exponent Retrieved by the GW1994 and Ahmad2010 Models a

Equations (8)

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ρ t ( λ ) = ρ r ( λ ) + ρ a ( λ ) + ρ r a ( λ ) + t ρ w ( λ ) ,
ρ = π L / ( F 0 cos θ 0 ) ,
ρ a s ( λ ) = ω a ( λ ) τ a ( λ ) p a ( λ ) / ( 4 cos θ v cos θ 0 ) , p a ( λ ) = P a ( α , λ ) + [ r ( θ v ) + r ( θ 0 ) ] P a ( α + , λ ) , cos α ± = ± cos θ 0 cos θ v sin θ 0 sin θ v cos ( ϕ ϕ 0 ) ,
ε ( λ NIR 1 , λ NIR 2 ) ρ a s ( λ NIR 1 ) ρ a s ( λ NIR 2 ) = ω a ( λ NIR 1 ) τ a ( λ NIR 1 ) p a ( λ NIR 1 ) ω a ( λ NIR 2 ) τ a ( λ NIR 2 ) p a ( λ NIR 2 ) ,
τ a ( λ ) = τ a ( 870 nm ) [ C ext ( λ ) / C ext ( 870 nm ) ] ,
τ a ( λ ) = i = 1 N [ w i τ a i ( λ ) ] ,
ω a ( λ ) P a ( λ ) = i = 1 N [ w i ω a i ( λ ) P a i ( λ ) ] ,
α ( 440 nm ) = log e [ τ a ( 440 nm ) / τ a ( 870 nm ) ] / log e [ 870 / 440 ] .

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