Abstract

In this paper we describe a system that measures the attenuation and isolation of optical waveguides and has the capability to fully explore these properties over a range of reproducible launch conditions. The system allows both the launch signal spot size and numerical aperture to be varied and can be correlated to the actual operating conditions of the board. Characterization of the optical system, including the magnification factor as well as the linearity, sensitivity, spatial uniformity of the charge-coupled device cameras, is shown. Initial results from a variety of waveguides, including planar, radii, and crossover designs, are discussed and an assessment of the key uncertainty contributions of the system is presented.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).
  3. D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. F. Wang, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and A. Adibi, “Precision measurements for propagation properties of high-definition polymer waveguides by imaging of scattered light,” Opt. Eng. 47, 024602 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup, “High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1244–1247(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics—Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2002).
  14. D. Ives, R. Ferguson, and S. Harris, “Development of a variable launch system to measure the attenuation and isolation of planar optical waveguides,” in Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’09 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 101–104.
  15. R. Ferguson and S. Harris, “Development of an optical system with controlled launch conditions for the characterisation of polymer optical fibre (pof),” in Proceedings of Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’07 (National Physical Laboratory, 2007), pp. 69–72.
  16. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and M. Wicks, “Accurate magnified near-field measurement of optical waveguides using a calibrated CCD camera,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 5067–5074 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

“Optical circuit boards—Basic test and measurement procedures—Part 2-1: Measurements—Optical attenuation and isolation,” IEC 62496-2-1, ed. 1.0, International Electrotechnical Commission, 2011.

2010 (1)

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. Ives, R. Ferguson, and S. Harris, “Development of a variable launch system to measure the attenuation and isolation of planar optical waveguides,” in Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’09 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 101–104.

2008 (2)

F. Wang, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and A. Adibi, “Precision measurements for propagation properties of high-definition polymer waveguides by imaging of scattered light,” Opt. Eng. 47, 024602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Ferguson and S. Harris, “Development of an optical system with controlled launch conditions for the characterisation of polymer optical fibre (pof),” in Proceedings of Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’07 (National Physical Laboratory, 2007), pp. 69–72.

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Chen, Q. Yan, Q. Xu, Z. Fan, and J. Liu, “Optical waveguide propagation loss measurement using multiple reflections method,” Opt. Commun. 256, 68–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics—Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

1997 (2)

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

1994 (1)

T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup, “High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1244–1247(1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

1973 (1)

Adibi, A.

F. Wang, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and A. Adibi, “Precision measurements for propagation properties of high-definition polymer waveguides by imaging of scattered light,” Opt. Eng. 47, 024602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bagshiahi, H.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bryson, C.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calver, J.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.-K.

F. Wang, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and A. Adibi, “Precision measurements for propagation properties of high-definition polymer waveguides by imaging of scattered light,” Opt. Eng. 47, 024602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chappell, J.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, Q. Yan, Q. Xu, Z. Fan, and J. Liu, “Optical waveguide propagation loss measurement using multiple reflections method,” Opt. Commun. 256, 68–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conway, P.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conway, P. P.

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deshazer, D. J.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, F. A.

Fan, Z.

S. Chen, Q. Yan, Q. Xu, Z. Fan, and J. Liu, “Optical waveguide propagation loss measurement using multiple reflections method,” Opt. Commun. 256, 68–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fatadin, I.

Ferguson, R.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Ives, R. Ferguson, and S. Harris, “Development of a variable launch system to measure the attenuation and isolation of planar optical waveguides,” in Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’09 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 101–104.

R. Ferguson and S. Harris, “Development of an optical system with controlled launch conditions for the characterisation of polymer optical fibre (pof),” in Proceedings of Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’07 (National Physical Laboratory, 2007), pp. 69–72.

Fernández, F. A.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feuchter, T.

T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup, “High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1244–1247(1994).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Ives, R. Ferguson, and S. Harris, “Development of a variable launch system to measure the attenuation and isolation of planar optical waveguides,” in Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’09 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 101–104.

R. Ferguson and S. Harris, “Development of an optical system with controlled launch conditions for the characterisation of polymer optical fibre (pof),” in Proceedings of Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’07 (National Physical Laboratory, 2007), pp. 69–72.

Hinde, G.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, K.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hueston, K.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics—Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Hutt, D. A.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ives, D.

D. Ives, R. Ferguson, and S. Harris, “Development of a variable launch system to measure the attenuation and isolation of planar optical waveguides,” in Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’09 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 101–104.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and M. Wicks, “Accurate magnified near-field measurement of optical waveguides using a calibrated CCD camera,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 5067–5074 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ives, D. J.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kandulski, W.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leibolt, W. N.

Liu, F.

F. Wang, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and A. Adibi, “Precision measurements for propagation properties of high-definition polymer waveguides by imaging of scattered light,” Opt. Eng. 47, 024602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

S. Chen, Q. Yan, Q. Xu, Z. Fan, and J. Liu, “Optical waveguide propagation loss measurement using multiple reflections method,” Opt. Commun. 256, 68–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, A.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

Milward, D.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muggeridge, M.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

Okamura, Y.

Ozaktas, H. M.

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).
[CrossRef]

Papakonstantinou, I.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pitwon, R.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rygate, J.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D. R.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suyal, H.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suyal, N.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

Takato, N.

Teng, C.-C.

Thirstrup, C.

T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup, “High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1244–1247(1994).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, N.

ur Rehman, H.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and A. Adibi, “Precision measurements for propagation properties of high-definition polymer waveguides by imaging of scattered light,” Opt. Eng. 47, 024602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

White, H.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wicks, M.

Xu, Q.

S. Chen, Q. Yan, Q. Xu, Z. Fan, and J. Liu, “Optical waveguide propagation loss measurement using multiple reflections method,” Opt. Commun. 256, 68–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yan, Q.

S. Chen, Q. Yan, Q. Xu, Z. Fan, and J. Liu, “Optical waveguide propagation loss measurement using multiple reflections method,” Opt. Commun. 256, 68–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaka, S.

Zakariyah, S. S.

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Circuit World (2)

D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, and D. Milward, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing,” Circuit World 34, 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Selviah, A. C. Walker, D. A. Hutt, K. Wang, A. McCarthy, F. A. Fernández, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Bagshiahi, H. Suyal, M. Taghizadeh, P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, R. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, M. Muggeridge, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, D. J. Deshazer, K. Hueston, D. J. Ives, R. Ferguson, S. Harris, G. Hinde, M. Cole, H. White, N. Suyal, H. ur Rehman, and C. Bryson, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World 36, 5–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Feuchter and C. Thirstrup, “High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1244–1247(1994).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Parallel Distr. Comput. (1)

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of the system architecture,” J. Parallel Distr. Comput. 41, 42–52(1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Chen, Q. Yan, Q. Xu, Z. Fan, and J. Liu, “Optical waveguide propagation loss measurement using multiple reflections method,” Opt. Commun. 256, 68–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Wang, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and A. Adibi, “Precision measurements for propagation properties of high-definition polymer waveguides by imaging of scattered light,” Opt. Eng. 47, 024602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

“Optical circuit boards—Basic test and measurement procedures—Part 2-1: Measurements—Optical attenuation and isolation,” IEC 62496-2-1, ed. 1.0, International Electrotechnical Commission, 2011.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics—Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

D. Ives, R. Ferguson, and S. Harris, “Development of a variable launch system to measure the attenuation and isolation of planar optical waveguides,” in Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’09 (National Physical Laboratory, 2009), pp. 101–104.

R. Ferguson and S. Harris, “Development of an optical system with controlled launch conditions for the characterisation of polymer optical fibre (pof),” in Proceedings of Proceedings of Optical Fibre Measurement Conference ’07 (National Physical Laboratory, 2007), pp. 69–72.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the variable launch attenuation and isolation measurement system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement to assess the linearity of the CCDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the linearity test for CCD2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the magnification standard taken through the receiver optics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial near-field intensity profile of the launched spot for a 50 μm pinhole, A1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radial far-field intensity profile of the launched spot for a 6.5 mm aperture, A2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Attenuation versus waveguide length, with least squares fitted trend line. Squares are for 75 μm × 30 μm waveguides and diamonds are for 85 μm × 30 μm waveguides.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Isolation versus waveguide length. Lower data and line corresponds to nearest neighbor, while upper data and line correspond to second neighbor. Squares are for 75 μm × 30 μm waveguides and diamonds are for 85 μm × 30 μm waveguides.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = 10 log ( P 0 P 1 ) ,
I = 10 log ( P 1 P 2 ) ,

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