Abstract

Bulk wide-field Michelson interferometers are very useful for high precision applications in remote sensing and astronomy. A stable monolithic Michelson interferometer is a key element in high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies. Thermal stress analysis shows that matching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) is a critical requirement for ensuring interferometer stability. This requirement leads to a novel design using BK7 and LAK7 materials, such that the monolithic interferometer is free from thermal distortion. The processes of design, fabrication, and testing of interferometers are described in detail. In performance evaluations, the field angle is typically 23.8° and thermal sensitivity is typically 2.6×106/°C near 550nm, which corresponds to 800m/s/°C in the RV scale. Low-cost interferometer products have been commissioned in multiple RV instruments, and they are producing high stability performance over long term operations.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. 7.6.3., pp. 333–335.
  2. D. Erskine and J. Ge, “Novel interferometer-spectrometer for sensitive stellar radial velocimetry,” in Imaging the Universe in Three Dimensions, W.van Breugel and J.Bland-Hawthorn, eds., Proc. Astronomical Society of the Pacific (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2000), Vol.  195, pp. 501–507.
  3. J. Ge, “Fixed delay interferometry for Doppler extrasolar planet detection,” Astrophys. J. 571, L165–L168 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Ge, D. Erskine, and M. Rushford, “An externally dispersed interferometer for sensitive Doppler extrasolar planet searches,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1016–1028 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4909–4916 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Harvey and the GONG instrument team, “The GONG instrument Michelson interferometer,” in GONG ’94: Helio- and Astero-Seismology from the Earth and Space, R.Ulrich, E.Rhodes, and W.Dappen, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1995), pp. 432–435.
  8. A. Title and H. Ramsey, “Improvements in birefringent filters. 6: Analog birefringent elements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2046–2058(1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Shepherd, W. Gault, D. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. Johnston, P. Kosteniuk, J. Haslett, D. Kendall, and J. Wimperis, “WAMDII—wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Thuillier and G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Thuillier and M. Herse, “Thermally stable filed compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Mani, S. Dobbie, A. Scott, G. Shepherd, W. Gault, and S. Brown, “Performance evaluation of a thermal Doppler Michelson interferometer system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7144–7155(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, C. R. Englert, J. G. Cardon, R. R. Conway, C. M. Brown, and J. Wimperis, “Robust monolithic ultraviolet interferometer for the SHIMMER instrument on STPSat-1,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2829–2834 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5645–5653 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5645–5653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4909–4916 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

2002

J. Ge, “Fixed delay interferometry for Doppler extrasolar planet detection,” Astrophys. J. 571, L165–L168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, D. Erskine, and M. Rushford, “An externally dispersed interferometer for sensitive Doppler extrasolar planet searches,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1016–1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Erskine and J. Ge, “Novel interferometer-spectrometer for sensitive stellar radial velocimetry,” in Imaging the Universe in Three Dimensions, W.van Breugel and J.Bland-Hawthorn, eds., Proc. Astronomical Society of the Pacific (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2000), Vol.  195, pp. 501–507.

1996

1995

J. Harvey and the GONG instrument team, “The GONG instrument Michelson interferometer,” in GONG ’94: Helio- and Astero-Seismology from the Earth and Space, R.Ulrich, E.Rhodes, and W.Dappen, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1995), pp. 432–435.

1991

1985

1980

Bollampally, S.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. 7.6.3., pp. 333–335.

Bosman, T.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

Brown, S.

Cardon, J. G.

Chang, L.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cochran, W.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conway, R. R.

Costello, E.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Lee, N.

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delgado-Navarro, A.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dewitt, C.

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dobbie, S.

Dou, L.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Endl, M.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Englert, C. R.

Erskine, D.

J. Ge, D. Erskine, and M. Rushford, “An externally dispersed interferometer for sensitive Doppler extrasolar planet searches,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1016–1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Erskine and J. Ge, “Novel interferometer-spectrometer for sensitive stellar radial velocimetry,” in Imaging the Universe in Three Dimensions, W.van Breugel and J.Bland-Hawthorn, eds., Proc. Astronomical Society of the Pacific (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2000), Vol.  195, pp. 501–507.

Fleming, S.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, A.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ford, E.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W.

Gault, W. A.

Ge, J.

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5645–5653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4909–4916 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, “Fixed delay interferometry for Doppler extrasolar planet detection,” Astrophys. J. 571, L165–L168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, D. Erskine, and M. Rushford, “An externally dispersed interferometer for sensitive Doppler extrasolar planet searches,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1016–1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Erskine and J. Ge, “Novel interferometer-spectrometer for sensitive stellar radial velocimetry,” in Imaging the Universe in Three Dimensions, W.van Breugel and J.Bland-Hawthorn, eds., Proc. Astronomical Society of the Pacific (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2000), Vol.  195, pp. 501–507.

Groot, J.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, K.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J. M.

Harvey, J.

J. Harvey and the GONG instrument team, “The GONG instrument Michelson interferometer,” in GONG ’94: Helio- and Astero-Seismology from the Earth and Space, R.Ulrich, E.Rhodes, and W.Dappen, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1995), pp. 432–435.

Haslett, J.

Hearty, F.

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henry, G.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herse, M.

Heuvel, A. V.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Israelian, G.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, H.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, S.

Kane, S. R.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D.

Kosteniuk, P.

Lee, B.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

Liu, J.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan, S.

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mani, R.

Marquez, G.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin, E.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mcdavitt, D.

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McDowell, S.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

Moise, A.

Montes, D.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pais, R.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pasturczyk, Z.

Powell, S.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, H.

Ramsey, L.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Rushford, M.

J. Ge, D. Erskine, and M. Rushford, “An externally dispersed interferometer for sensitive Doppler extrasolar planet searches,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1016–1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, S.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A.

Sellar, G.

Shelden, A.

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G.

Shepherd, G. G.

Thuillier, G.

Title, A.

Valenti, J.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Eyken, J.

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Varosi, F.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5645–5653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4909–4916 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5645–5653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4909–4916 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wimperis, J.

Wittenmyer, R.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. 7.6.3., pp. 333–335.

Zhao, B.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. Title and H. Ramsey, “Improvements in birefringent filters. 6: Analog birefringent elements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2046–2058(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shepherd, W. Gault, D. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. Johnston, P. Kosteniuk, J. Haslett, D. Kendall, and J. Wimperis, “WAMDII—wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier and G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier and M. Herse, “Thermally stable filed compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mani, S. Dobbie, A. Scott, G. Shepherd, W. Gault, and S. Brown, “Performance evaluation of a thermal Doppler Michelson interferometer system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7144–7155(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4909–4916 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, C. R. Englert, J. G. Cardon, R. R. Conway, C. M. Brown, and J. Wimperis, “Robust monolithic ultraviolet interferometer for the SHIMMER instrument on STPSat-1,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2829–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, “Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5645–5653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. V. Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, “The first extrasolar planet discovered with a new generation high throughput Doppler instrument,” Astrophys. J. 648, 683–695 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, “Fixed delay interferometry for Doppler extrasolar planet detection,” Astrophys. J. 571, L165–L168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Ge, B. Zhao, J. Groot, L. Chang, F. Varosi, X. Wan, S. Powell, P. Jiang, K. Hanna, J. Wang, R. Pais, J. Liu, L. Dou, S. Schofield, S. McDowell, E. Costello, A. Delgado-Navarro, S. Fleming, B. Lee, S. Bollampally, T. Bosman, H. Jakeman, A. Fletcher, and G. Marquez, “Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, B. Lee, N. De Lee, X. Wan, J. Groot, B. Zhao, F. Varosi, K. Hanna, S. Mahadevan, F. Hearty, L. Chang, J. Liu, J. van Eyken, J. Wang, R. Pais, Z. Chen, A. Shelden, and E. Costello, “A new generation multi-object Doppler instrument for the SDSS-III multi-object APO radial velocity exoplanet large-area survey,” Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac.

J. Ge, D. Erskine, and M. Rushford, “An externally dispersed interferometer for sensitive Doppler extrasolar planet searches,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1016–1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahadevan, J. Ge, S. Fleming, X. Wan, C. Dewitt, J. Van Eyken, and D. Mcdavitt, “An inexpensive field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer for precision radial velocity measurements,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1001–1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. 7.6.3., pp. 333–335.

D. Erskine and J. Ge, “Novel interferometer-spectrometer for sensitive stellar radial velocimetry,” in Imaging the Universe in Three Dimensions, W.van Breugel and J.Bland-Hawthorn, eds., Proc. Astronomical Society of the Pacific (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2000), Vol.  195, pp. 501–507.

J. Harvey and the GONG instrument team, “The GONG instrument Michelson interferometer,” in GONG ’94: Helio- and Astero-Seismology from the Earth and Space, R.Ulrich, E.Rhodes, and W.Dappen, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1995), pp. 432–435.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monolithic Michelson interferometer and the typical beam relay from an input fiber to spectrograph slits. On the slit plane, the narrow image of the fiber is superposed with fringe modulation. Fiber array and corresponding lens arrays can stack out of the plane in a multiobject configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram of C values for common glass materials. The bin width is 1 × 10 6 / ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of calculated interferometer thermal sensitivities. The bin width is 1 × 10 6 / ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Model and dimensions for determining the interferometer thermal stress.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modeled thermal stress resulted phase shift and distortion when temperature increases by 10 ° C . The CTE mismatch is set as 1 × 10 6 / ° C .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measuring angle-dependent phase shift of the surface reflection interference for determining the exaggerated thickness imbalance of a beam splitter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase shift as a function of the incident angle to determine thickness imbalance of the beam splitter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a)  7 mm delay interferometer for the MARVELS instrument; (b)  10 mm delay interferometer for the EXPERT instrument. A diffusive green monochromatic mercury lamp illuminates at 546.1 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measuring the angle-dependent phase shift of an interferometer with a translating photodetector.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Interferometer off-axis (in air) phase shift.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Using a multimode fiber coupled scanning white-light interferometer to monitor the phase shift of a temperature controlled monolithic interferometer.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured interferometer phase shift during a heating/cooling process.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Continuous monitoring interferometer stability using (a) a laser scheme for 7 d and (b) white-light interferometer for 10 d .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selected Material Pairs with Refractive Indexes, CTEs, and Calculated Interferometer Thermal Sensitivities

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t 1 / n 1 = t 2 / n 2 ,
( d n 2 / d T + α 2 n 2 ) t 2 ( d n 1 / d T + α 1 n 1 ) t 1 = 0 ,
S = ( C 2 C 1 ) / ( n 2 2 n 1 2 ) ,
ϕ = 4 π n · Ω · cos ( sin 1 ( sin i / n ) ) / λ ,

Metrics