Abstract

In the present paper we discuss the method of image coding by multiple exposure of range-gated images. This method enlarges the depth mapping range of range-gated imaging systems exponentially with the number of utilized images. We developed a theoretical model to give a precise prediction of the number of permutations that can be used for image coding. For what we believe is the first time, we realized an image coding sequence for three range-gated images to enlarge the depth mapping range by a factor of 12. We demonstrate three-dimensional imaging in a range of 460 to 1000m using a laser pulse width of 300ns. Because of the impact of noise, a critical linking error occurs during the encoding of the intensity images. It is possible to reduce this error by the application of effective noise reduction strategies and the use of a threshold value to the tolerance drift of intensity levels.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. F. Gillespie, “Apparent illuminance as a function of range in gated, laser night-viewing systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 883–887 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, “Pulsed Raman fiber laser and multispectral imaging in three dimensions,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6198–6204 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3146–3148 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, “A 3D outdoor scene scanner based on a night-vision range-gated active imaging system,” in Proceedings—Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006 (2007), pp. 938–945.
  6. M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhang, H. Yan, J. Yao, and W. Shangguan, “Exponential increase partitions method for three-dimensional active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75065Q (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. Yan, J. Yao, and W. Shangguan, “Exponential increase partitions method for three-dimensional active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75065Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, “A 3D outdoor scene scanner based on a night-vision range-gated active imaging system,” in Proceedings—Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006 (2007), pp. 938–945.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3146–3148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, “Pulsed Raman fiber laser and multispectral imaging in three dimensions,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6198–6204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Andersen, J. F.

Andersson, P.

P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bacher, E.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Busck, J.

Christnacher, F.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, “A 3D outdoor scene scanner based on a night-vision range-gated active imaging system,” in Proceedings—Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006 (2007), pp. 938–945.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3146–3148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillespie, L. F.

Heiselberg, H.

Laurenzis, M.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3146–3148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutz, Y.

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, “A 3D outdoor scene scanner based on a night-vision range-gated active imaging system,” in Proceedings—Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006 (2007), pp. 938–945.

Metzger, N.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monnin, D.

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, “A 3D outdoor scene scanner based on a night-vision range-gated active imaging system,” in Proceedings—Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006 (2007), pp. 938–945.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3146–3148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, A. L.

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, “A 3D outdoor scene scanner based on a night-vision range-gated active imaging system,” in Proceedings—Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006 (2007), pp. 938–945.

Shangguan, W.

X. Zhang, H. Yan, J. Yao, and W. Shangguan, “Exponential increase partitions method for three-dimensional active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75065Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

X. Zhang, H. Yan, J. Yao, and W. Shangguan, “Exponential increase partitions method for three-dimensional active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75065Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

X. Zhang, H. Yan, J. Yao, and W. Shangguan, “Exponential increase partitions method for three-dimensional active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75065Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. Yan, J. Yao, and W. Shangguan, “Exponential increase partitions method for three-dimensional active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75065Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zielenski, I.

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, N. Metzger, E. Bacher, and I. Zielenski, “Three-dimensional range-gated imaging at infrared wavelengths with super-resolution depth mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7298, 729833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. Yan, J. Yao, and W. Shangguan, “Exponential increase partitions method for three-dimensional active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7506, 75065Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, “A 3D outdoor scene scanner based on a night-vision range-gated active imaging system,” in Proceedings—Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006 (2007), pp. 938–945.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Construction of a depth-intensity profile of range-gated imaging [1].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Convolution of rectangular laser pulse [ P ( t ) ] and sensor gate [ G ( t ) ] functions lead to triangular or trapezoid-shaped depth-intensity profiles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of states for n images with n = 2 and n = 3 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

12 T image coding: depth-intensity profiles [ I i ( T ) ], sensor gate [ G i ( T ) ], and laser pulse [ P ( T ) ] sequences.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation of a 12 T coding for three range-gated images of a flat plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup for the realization of a 12 T image coding depth mapping.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental realization of a 12 T image coding depth mapping with T = 300 ns .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of Permutations P total , P 3 D , and P no 3 D for n = 1 8

Tables Icon

Table 2 P 3 D Permutations for the Application of Three Range-Gated Images

Equations (8)

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I G V ( z ) = 0 P ( t 2 z / c ) G ( t τ delay ) d t .
[ a 2 a 1 ] 5 T = 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 .
P total = 3 n .
P 3 D = P total P no 3 D .
P no 3 D ( n ) = 2 P no 3 D ( n 1 ) + 1 = i = 0 n 2 i .
z = z 0 + Δ z [ T n + I 1 , rise I 2 ] ,
z = z 0 + Δ z [ T n + ( 1 I 1 , fall I 2 ) ] .
σ z = ( σ 1 I 1 + σ 2 I 2 ) × Δ z .

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