Abstract

We describe a novel multilayered metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) for use in astronomical polarimetric instruments. The HWP is designed to operate across the frequency range from 125 to 250GHz. The wave plate is manufactured from 12 layers of thin film metallic inductive and capacitive grids patterned onto polypropylene sheets, which are then bonded together using a hot-pressing technique. Transmission line modeling and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations are used to optimize the parameters of the metal-mesh patterns and to evaluate their optical properties. A prototype HWP has been fabricated, and its performance is characterized in a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer. The device performance is consistent with the modeling, although the measured differential phase shift for two orthogonal polarizations is lower than expected. This difference is likely to result from imperfect patterning of individual layers and misalignment of the grids during manufacture.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Savini, G. Pisano, and P. A. R. Ade, “Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: modeling and simulation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8907–8915 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Pisano, G. Savini, and P. A. R. Ade, “Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: experimental characterization,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6982–6989 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, Memoir 71 (1955), pp. 137–144.
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  5. P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Zhang, P. A. R. Ade, P. Mauskopf, L. Moncelsi, G. Savini, and N. Whitehouse, “New artificial dielectric metamaterial and its application as a terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6635–6642 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (3)

2008 (2)

G. Pisano, G. Savini, P. A. R. Ade, and V. Haynes, “Metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate for use at submillimeter wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6251–6256 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Metal-mesh filters for THz applications,” in Proceedings of the Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 2007 and the 2007 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics. IRMMW-THz. Joint 32nd International Conference (2007), pp. 973–975.

2006 (4)

1995 (1)

A. D. Shatrow, A. D. Chuprin, and A. N. Sivov, “Constructing the phase converters consisting of arbitrary number of translucent surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. M. Title and W. J. Rosenberg, “Achromatic retardation plates,” Proc. SPIE 307, 120–131 (1981).

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

D. S. Lerner, “A wave polarization converter for circular polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 13, 65–69 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, Memoir 71 (1955), pp. 137–144.

Ade, P.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

G. Savini, P. A. R. Ade, J. House, G. Pisano, V. Haynes, and P. Bastien, “Recovering the frequency dependent modulation function of the achromatic half-wave plate for POL-2: the SCUBA-2 polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2006–2013 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsumura, S. Hanany, P. A. R. Ade, B. R. Johnson, T. J. Jones, P. Jonnalagadda, and G. Savini, “Performance of three- and five-stack achromatic half-wave plates at millimeter wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3614–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, P. A. R. Ade, P. Mauskopf, L. Moncelsi, G. Savini, and N. Whitehouse, “New artificial dielectric metamaterial and its application as a terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6635–6642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pisano, G. Savini, P. A. R. Ade, and V. Haynes, “Metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate for use at submillimeter wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6251–6256 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Metal-mesh filters for THz applications,” in Proceedings of the Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 2007 and the 2007 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics. IRMMW-THz. Joint 32nd International Conference (2007), pp. 973–975.

G. Pisano, G. Savini, and P. A. R. Ade, “Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: experimental characterization,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6982–6989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Savini, G. Pisano, and P. A. R. Ade, “Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: modeling and simulation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8907–8915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bastien, P.

Bock, J.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, M.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. L.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, G.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J. E.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Castro, P. G.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chuprin, A. D.

A. D. Shatrow, A. D. Chuprin, and A. N. Sivov, “Constructing the phase converters consisting of arbitrary number of translucent surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Church, S.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Culverhouse, T.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forman, M. L.

Fowler, J.

Friedman, R.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganga, K.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gear, W. K.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halpern, M.

Hanany, S.

Haynes, V.

Henry, R.

Hinderks, J.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

House, J.

Johnson, B. R.

Jones, T. J.

Jonnalagadda, P.

Kovac, J.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lange, A. E.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lau, J.

Leitch, E.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leong, J.

Lerner, D. S.

D. S. Lerner, “A wave polarization converter for circular polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 13, 65–69 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Marriage, T.

Marsden, D.

Marsden, G.

Matsumura, T.

Mauskopf, P.

Melhuish, S. J.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moncelsi, L.

Murphy, J. A.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, C.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, A.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Page, L.

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, Memoir 71 (1955), pp. 137–144.

Piccirillo, L.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pisano, G.

Pryke, C.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rajguru, N.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, W. J.

A. M. Title and W. J. Rosenberg, “Achromatic retardation plates,” Proc. SPIE 307, 120–131 (1981).

Rusholme, B.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Wu, E. Y.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Savini, G.

Schwarz, R.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shatrow, A. D.

A. D. Shatrow, A. D. Chuprin, and A. N. Sivov, “Constructing the phase converters consisting of arbitrary number of translucent surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sivov, A. N.

A. D. Shatrow, A. D. Chuprin, and A. N. Sivov, “Constructing the phase converters consisting of arbitrary number of translucent surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. N.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K. L.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Title, A. M.

A. M. Title and W. J. Rosenberg, “Achromatic retardation plates,” Proc. SPIE 307, 120–131 (1981).

Tucker, C.

C. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Metal-mesh filters for THz applications,” in Proceedings of the Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 2007 and the 2007 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics. IRMMW-THz. Joint 32nd International Conference (2007), pp. 973–975.

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, S.

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whitehouse, N.

Wishnow, E.

Wollack, E.

Zemcov, M.

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (7)

G. Savini, G. Pisano, and P. A. R. Ade, “Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: modeling and simulation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8907–8915 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pisano, G. Savini, and P. A. R. Ade, “Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: experimental characterization,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6982–6989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsumura, S. Hanany, P. A. R. Ade, B. R. Johnson, T. J. Jones, P. Jonnalagadda, and G. Savini, “Performance of three- and five-stack achromatic half-wave plates at millimeter wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3614–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pisano, G. Savini, P. A. R. Ade, and V. Haynes, “Metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate for use at submillimeter wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6251–6256 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, P. A. R. Ade, P. Mauskopf, L. Moncelsi, G. Savini, and N. Whitehouse, “New artificial dielectric metamaterial and its application as a terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6635–6642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Savini, P. A. R. Ade, J. House, G. Pisano, V. Haynes, and P. Bastien, “Recovering the frequency dependent modulation function of the achromatic half-wave plate for POL-2: the SCUBA-2 polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2006–2013 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lau, J. Fowler, T. Marriage, L. Page, J. Leong, E. Wishnow, R. Henry, E. Wollack, M. Halpern, D. Marsden, and G. Marsden, “Millimeter-wave antireflection coating for cryogenic silicon lenses,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3746–3751 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, M. L. Brown, G. Cahill, J. E. Carlstrom, P. G. Castro, S. Church, T. Culverhouse, R. Friedman, K. Ganga, W. K. Gear, J. Hinderks, J. Kovac, A. E. Lange, E. Leitch, S. J. Melhuish, J. A. Murphy, A. Orlando, R. Schwarz, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, N. Rajguru, B. Rusholme, A. N. Taylor, K. L. Thompson, E. Y. S. Wu, and M. Zemcov, “First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra,” Astrophys. J. 674, 22–28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

A. D. Shatrow, A. D. Chuprin, and A. N. Sivov, “Constructing the phase converters consisting of arbitrary number of translucent surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109–113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Lerner, “A wave polarization converter for circular polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 13, 65–69 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Title and W. J. Rosenberg, “Achromatic retardation plates,” Proc. SPIE 307, 120–131 (1981).

Other (4)

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, Memoir 71 (1955), pp. 137–144.

Agilent website for ADS: http://www.home.agilent.com/agilent/home.jspx/.

Ansoft HFSS website: http://www.ansoft.com/products/hf/hfss/.

C. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Metal-mesh filters for THz applications,” in Proceedings of the Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 2007 and the 2007 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics. IRMMW-THz. Joint 32nd International Conference (2007), pp. 973–975.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top view of single layer metal-mesh pattern. (a) Inductive grid pattern. (b) Capacitive grid pattern. (c) Metallic planar IDC in capacitive grid pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission line models for six capacitive grids and six inductive grids embedded in polypropylene. (An additional section of polypropylene is added when modeling to make the total physical thickness of the two transmission line models equal to the sum of the thicknesses of the two sets of six grids and spacers.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HFSS and ADS simulated power transmission through HWP when the electric field is parallel to the inductive lines (inductive grids) and orthogonal to it (capacitive grids).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HFSS and ADS simulated phase shift through HWP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Basic structure of the HWP model. There are 12 grids embedded in polypropylene with six capacitive grids orthogonal to six inductive grids.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

HFSS simulated phase shift of six capacitive grids [first quarter-wave plate (QWP)] and six inductive grids (second QWP).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

HFSS simulated phase delay of six capacitive grids (first QWP) and six inductive grids (second QWP) in both ordinary axis and extraordinary axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic drawing of spectral measurements setup.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured transmission between parallel polarizers through the prototype HWP.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transmission of the copolarization and cross- polarization of an incoming field at + 45 ° and 45 ° .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured cross-polarization transmission on axis through prototype HWP.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured (FTS) and HFSS simulated power transmission through prototype HWP when the electric field is parallel to the inductive lines (inductive grids) and orthogonal to it (capacitive grids).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

HFSS simulated and measured phase shift.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design Parameters in HFSS: the Geometric Dimensions of All Spacers and the Mesh Patterns

Equations (4)

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M HWP ( 0 ° ) = 1 2 α 2 + β 2 ( α 2 β 2 ) 0 0 ( α 2 β 2 ) ( α 2 + β 2 ) 0 0 0 0 2 α β cos ϕ 2 α β sin ϕ 0 0 2 α β sin ϕ 2 α β cos ϕ .
M HWP ( 45 ° ) = 1 2 α 2 + β 2 0 ( α 2 β 2 ) 0 0 2 α β cos ϕ 0 2 α β sin ϕ α 2 β 2 0 α 2 + β 2 0 0 2 α β sin ϕ 0 2 α β cos ϕ .
D ( 45 ° ) = 1 4 ( α 2 + β 2 + 2 α β cos ϕ ) ,
ϕ = cos 1 { [ 4 D ( 45 ° ) D ( 0 ° ) D ( 90 ° ) ] / [ 2 D ( 0 ° ) D ( 90 ° ) ] } .

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