Abstract

Near-the-ground laser communication systems must operate in the presence of strong atmospheric turbulence. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on the laser beam that are relevant to optical communications are a broadening of the laser footprint, random jitter of the laser beam, and high spatial frequency intensity fluctuations referred to as scintillation. The overall goal of our program is to improve the performance and extend the range of optical communications systems by exploring the use of adaptive optics and channel coding. Knowledge of the turbulence conditions and the ability to describe its properties are the key aspects to make these improvements effective. The developed multiphase approach is directed to statistically describe atmospheric turbulence based on results derived from experimentally collected data. Statistics of Fried parameter r0 is derived from 6TB of data collected over 50days, and under various day and night atmospheric conditions. Significant fluctuations of r0 are found with the values ranging from 2mm and up to 15cm, corresponding to the significant structure function Cn2 fluctuations from 7.4×1014 to 8.1×1016.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system: Fried parameter estimation from the WFS measurements,” in Proceedings of IEEE, Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–12.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system for monitoring the statistics of turbulence: Fried parameter estimation from the PSF measurements,” Proc. SPIE 7685, 76850L (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, P. Piatrou, and M. C. Roggemann, “Bootstrap beacon creation for overcoming the effects of beacon anisoplanitism in a laser beam projection system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2399–2413 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

M. P. J. L. Chang, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, “Humidity contribution to Cn2 over a 600 m path length in a tropical marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 64570W(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and T. J. Schulz, “Bootstrap beacon creation for dynamic wave front compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060S (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Brennan and P. H. Roberts, AO Tools The Adaptive Optics Toolbox-Users Guide version 1.2, (Optical Sciences Company, 2006).

2005 (2)

M. C. Roggemann, T. J. Schulz, A. V. Sergeyev, and G. Soehnel, “Beacon creation and characterization for beam control in strong turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, H. Refai, J. J. Sluss Jr., P. Verma, and P. LoPresti, “Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 58921D (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

R. R. Beland, “Propagation through the atmospheric turbulence,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, F.G.Smith (ed.) (SPIE Press, 1993), Vol. 2, pp. 157–232.

1988 (1)

P. B. Ulrich, “Hufnagel–Valley profiles for specified values of the coherence length and isoplanatic angle, Tech. Rep. MA-TN-88-013 (W. J. Schafer Associates, 1988).

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

R. E. Hufnagel, “Propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” in The Infrared Handbook (USGPO, 1974), Chap. 6.

1971 (1)

1970 (2)

R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, “Measurements of atmospheric turbulence relevant to optical propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 826–830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Sparrow, R. B. Husar, and R. J. Goldstein, “Observations and other characteristics of thermals,” J. Fluid Mech. 41, 793–800 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. E. Coulman, “A quantitative treatment of solar seeing I,” Sol. Phys. 7, 122–143 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Abelson, D.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Airola, M.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

Andrews, L.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beland, R. R.

R. R. Beland, “Propagation through the atmospheric turbulence,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, F.G.Smith (ed.) (SPIE Press, 1993), Vol. 2, pp. 157–232.

Bendersky, S.

Blaunstein, N.

Borbath, M. R.

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, T. J.

T. J. Brennan and P. H. Roberts, AO Tools The Adaptive Optics Toolbox-Users Guide version 1.2, (Optical Sciences Company, 2006).

Chang, M. P. J. L.

M. P. J. L. Chang, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, “Humidity contribution to Cn2 over a 600 m path length in a tropical marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 64570W(2007).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, P.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, S. F.

Collins, S. A.

Coulman, C. E.

C. E. Coulman, “A quantitative treatment of solar seeing I,” Sol. Phys. 7, 122–143 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Crabbs, R.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demars, C.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system: Fried parameter estimation from the WFS measurements,” in Proceedings of IEEE, Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–12.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system for monitoring the statistics of turbulence: Fried parameter estimation from the PSF measurements,” Proc. SPIE 7685, 76850L (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, K.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Driver, D.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Font, C. O.

M. P. J. L. Chang, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, “Humidity contribution to Cn2 over a 600 m path length in a tropical marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 64570W(2007).
[CrossRef]

Foshee, J.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galus, D. J.

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, C.

M. P. J. L. Chang, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, “Humidity contribution to Cn2 over a 600 m path length in a tropical marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 64570W(2007).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, R. J.

E. M. Sparrow, R. B. Husar, and R. J. Goldstein, “Observations and other characteristics of thermals,” J. Fluid Mech. 41, 793–800 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Graves, B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffis, B.

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hufnagel, R. E.

Hurt, H.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Husar, R. B.

E. M. Sparrow, R. B. Husar, and R. J. Goldstein, “Observations and other characteristics of thermals,” J. Fluid Mech. 41, 793–800 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, Y.

Juarez, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiriazes, J.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolodzy, P.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kopeika, N. S.

Kunkel, K. E.

Lawrence, R. S.

Leclerc, T. T.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, H. Refai, J. J. Sluss Jr., P. Verma, and P. LoPresti, “Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 58921D (2005).
[CrossRef]

LoPresti, P.

Y. Li, H. Refai, J. J. Sluss Jr., P. Verma, and P. LoPresti, “Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 58921D (2005).
[CrossRef]

McClaren, A.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

McIntire, W.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrook, C.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Northcott, M.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ochs, G. R.

Oh, E.

M. P. J. L. Chang, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, “Humidity contribution to Cn2 over a 600 m path length in a tropical marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 64570W(2007).
[CrossRef]

Parenti, R. R.

Phillips, J.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piatrou, P.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, P. Piatrou, and M. C. Roggemann, “Bootstrap beacon creation for overcoming the effects of beacon anisoplanitism in a laser beam projection system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2399–2413 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pike, A.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pike, H. A.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Refai, H.

Y. Li, H. Refai, J. J. Sluss Jr., P. Verma, and P. LoPresti, “Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 58921D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. H.

T. J. Brennan and P. H. Roberts, AO Tools The Adaptive Optics Toolbox-Users Guide version 1.2, (Optical Sciences Company, 2006).

Roggemann, M.

Roggemann, M. C.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system for monitoring the statistics of turbulence: Fried parameter estimation from the PSF measurements,” Proc. SPIE 7685, 76850L (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system: Fried parameter estimation from the WFS measurements,” in Proceedings of IEEE, Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–12.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, P. Piatrou, and M. C. Roggemann, “Bootstrap beacon creation for overcoming the effects of beacon anisoplanitism in a laser beam projection system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2399–2413 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and T. J. Schulz, “Bootstrap beacon creation for dynamic wave front compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060S (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, T. J. Schulz, A. V. Sergeyev, and G. Soehnel, “Beacon creation and characterization for beam control in strong turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

Sasiella, R. J.

Sauer, P.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, T. J.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and T. J. Schulz, “Bootstrap beacon creation for dynamic wave front compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060S (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, T. J. Schulz, A. V. Sergeyev, and G. Soehnel, “Beacon creation and characterization for beam control in strong turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sergeyev, A. V.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system: Fried parameter estimation from the WFS measurements,” in Proceedings of IEEE, Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–12.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system for monitoring the statistics of turbulence: Fried parameter estimation from the PSF measurements,” Proc. SPIE 7685, 76850L (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, P. Piatrou, and M. C. Roggemann, “Bootstrap beacon creation for overcoming the effects of beacon anisoplanitism in a laser beam projection system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2399–2413 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and T. J. Schulz, “Bootstrap beacon creation for dynamic wave front compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060S (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, T. J. Schulz, A. V. Sergeyev, and G. Soehnel, “Beacon creation and characterization for beam control in strong turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silbaugh, E.

Sluss, J. J.

Y. Li, H. Refai, J. J. Sluss Jr., P. Verma, and P. LoPresti, “Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 58921D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sluz, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soehnel, G.

M. C. Roggemann, T. J. Schulz, A. V. Sergeyev, and G. Soehnel, “Beacon creation and characterization for beam control in strong turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sova, R.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sparrow, E. M.

E. M. Sparrow, R. B. Husar, and R. J. Goldstein, “Observations and other characteristics of thermals,” J. Fluid Mech. 41, 793–800 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, B.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, N. R.

Stotts, L. B.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, P. B.

P. B. Ulrich, “Hufnagel–Valley profiles for specified values of the coherence length and isoplanatic angle, Tech. Rep. MA-TN-88-013 (W. J. Schafer Associates, 1988).

Verma, P.

Y. Li, H. Refai, J. J. Sluss Jr., P. Verma, and P. LoPresti, “Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 58921D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vetelino, F. S.

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Visone, C.

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walters, D. L.

Wayne, D. T.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B.

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

Wyngaard, J. C.

Yang, W.

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

Young, D.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

E. M. Sparrow, R. B. Husar, and R. J. Goldstein, “Observations and other characteristics of thermals,” J. Fluid Mech. 41, 793–800 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (12)

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, C. Middlebrook, P. Piatrou, W. Yang, K. Drexler, and C. Demars, “An atmospheric turbulence, scattering, and weather monitoring system for three kilometers, partially over water path for monitoring the statistics of turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 73240P(2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wayne, R. L. Phillips, L. C. Andrews, F. S. Vetelino, B. Griffis, M. R. Borbath, D. J. Galus, and C. Visone, “Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090L (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, B. Graves, M. Northcott, J. Douglas, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, P. Kolodzy, H. A. Pike, and G. Lee, “Optical RF communications adjunct,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 10–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, H. Refai, J. J. Sluss Jr., P. Verma, and P. LoPresti, “Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 58921D (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and T. J. Schulz, “Bootstrap beacon creation for dynamic wave front compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060S (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, T. J. Schulz, A. V. Sergeyev, and G. Soehnel, “Beacon creation and characterization for beam control in strong turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, D. T. Wayne, T. T. Leclerc, P. Sauer, R. Crabbs, and J. Kiriazes, “Near-ground vertical profile of refractive index fluctuations,” Proc. SPIE 7324, 732402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. J. L. Chang, C. O. Font, C. Gilbreath, and E. Oh, “Humidity contribution to Cn2 over a 600 m path length in a tropical marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 64570W(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system for monitoring the statistics of turbulence: Fried parameter estimation from the PSF measurements,” Proc. SPIE 7685, 76850L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

C. E. Coulman, “A quantitative treatment of solar seeing I,” Sol. Phys. 7, 122–143 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150 km free space optical link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–6.

R. E. Hufnagel, “Propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” in The Infrared Handbook (USGPO, 1974), Chap. 6.

P. B. Ulrich, “Hufnagel–Valley profiles for specified values of the coherence length and isoplanatic angle, Tech. Rep. MA-TN-88-013 (W. J. Schafer Associates, 1988).

R. R. Beland, “Propagation through the atmospheric turbulence,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, F.G.Smith (ed.) (SPIE Press, 1993), Vol. 2, pp. 157–232.

T. J. Brennan and P. H. Roberts, AO Tools The Adaptive Optics Toolbox-Users Guide version 1.2, (Optical Sciences Company, 2006).

A. V. Sergeyev, M. C. Roggemann, and C. Demars, “Near the ground laser communication system: Fried parameter estimation from the WFS measurements,” in Proceedings of IEEE, Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–12.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The laser and LED transmitters with a spoke target mounted in between.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitter assembly.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Receiver assembly.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images obtained via WFS and PSF channels. (a) Average wavefront sensor superimposed on a display of the lenslet edges (WFS channel), (b) mild turbulence condition—instantaneous image of the spoke target with the laser transmitter on, (c) moderate turbulence condition—instantaneous image of the spoke target with the laser transmitter off (PSF channel), (d) early morning data—average image of the LED bar with individual LEDs on and with the laser transmitter on (PSF channel).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Steps in the wavefront sensor calibration and deterministic global tilt removal. (a) Ideal wavefront sensor model—edges of squares represent the edges of the subapertures, the spots in the center represent the locations of the images that would arise if the model wavefront sensor were illuminated with a plane wave, (b) wavefront sensor model with an actual average wavefront sensor image superimposed, (c) mask used to align the measured data to the model, (d) result of the alignment process—the shifted average wavefront sensor image superimposed on a display of the lenslet edges.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Steps in wavefront sensor calibration. (a) An intensity image representing the estimated fixed phase error—scale on color bar is in radians, (b) surface mesh plot of (a), (c) an intensity image representing tilt-removed residual phase—scale on color bar is in radians, (d) surface mesh of (c), (e) x-axis and y-axis slices through the estimated fixed residual phase, (f) x-axis and y-axis slices through the tilt-removed residual phase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluctuations of r 0 as a function of date at the specific time of the day. The upper left plot shows estimated values of r 0 based on the data collected at 6 a.m. during a 50 day time interval. The other plots demonstrate variation of r 0 at 10 a.m., 2 p.m., 7 p.m., and 11 p.m. during a 50 day time interval.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Tabulated values of r 0 for the selected dates.

Equations (8)

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D Δ ϕ x x ( s ) = E { [ Δ x ϕ ( x ) Δ x ϕ ( x + s ) ] 2 } .
D ϕ ( x , x ) = 6.88 ( | x x | r 0 ) 5 / 3 .
J ( r ˜ 0 ) = all separations [ D Δ ϕ x x , measured ( s ) D Δ ϕ x x ( s , r ˜ 0 ) ] 2 ,
C n 2 ( h ) = 5.94 × 10 53 ( υ / 27 ) 2 h 10 e h / 1000 + 2.7 × 10 16 e h / 1500 + A e h / 100 ,
C n 2 ( h ) = 5.94 × 10 53 ( υ / 27 ) 2 h 10 e h / 1000 + 2.7 × 10 16 e h / 1500 + C n 2 ( h 0 ) ( h 0 / h ) 4 / 3 ,
r 0 = 0.185 [ 4 π 2 k 2 d z ( L z L ) 5 / 3 C n 2 ( z ) ] 3 / 5 .
r 0 = ( 8 3 ) 3 / 5 0.185 [ 4 π 2 k 2 C n 2 ( h ) L ] 3 / 5 .
C n 2 ( h ) = 0.1602 [ 4 π 2 k 2 r 0 , estimated 5 / 3 L ] .

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