Abstract

A plasmonic-hybrid-waveguide-based optical phase modulator is proposed and analyzed. The field enhancement in the low-index high-nonlinear polymer layer provides nanoscale optical confinement and a fast optical modulation speed. At 2.5V drive voltage, a π phase shift can be obtained for a 13-μm-long plasmonic waveguide. Because of its small capacitance and parasitic resistance, the modulation bandwidth can reach up to 100GHz with a low power consumption of 9fJ/bit. The plasmonic waveguide is connected to a silicon wire waveguide via an adiabatic taper with a coupling efficiency of 91%. The phase modulator can find potential applications in optical telecommunication and interconnects.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

M. Fujii, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Dispersion relation and loss of subwavelength confined mode of metal dielectric-gap optical waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 362–364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Dai and S. L. He, “Low-loss hybrid plasmonic waveguide with double low-index nano-slots,” Opt. Express 17, 16646–16653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 45–57 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109(2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “On long-range plasmonic modes in metallic gaps,” Opt. Express 15, 13669–13674 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3447–3449(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1992 (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28, 83–85(1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

V.M.Agranovich and D.L.Mills, eds., Surface Polaritons: Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces (Elsevier, 1982).

1972 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M. Z.

Andreani, L. C.

Avrutsky, I.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bale, D.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, J. B.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bhatambrekar, N. P.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharjee, S.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

D. Gramotnev and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3447–3449(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brosi, J.-M.

Buchwald, W.

Buker, N.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cady, F.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28, 83–85(1992).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D. X.

Dalton, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei, W. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. Dalton, “Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968–1975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichinger, B.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Firestone, K. A.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

M. Fujii, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Dispersion relation and loss of subwavelength confined mode of metal dielectric-gap optical waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 362–364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Dispersion relation and loss of subwavelength confined mode of metal dielectric-gap optical waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 362–364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photon. 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D.

D. Gramotnev and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

Gray, T.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haller, M. A.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, S.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

He, S.

He, S. L.

Herman, W. N.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109(2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. H.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, S.-H.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ka, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. D.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

Kuipers, L. K.

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

M. Fujii, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Dispersion relation and loss of subwavelength confined mode of metal dielectric-gap optical waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 362–364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Liu, S.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photon. 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

Mojahedi, M.

Moreno, E.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “On long-range plasmonic modes in metallic gaps,” Opt. Express 15, 13669–13674 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overney, R. M.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. H.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

Polman, A.

Rabiei, P.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photon. 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28, 83–85(1992).
[CrossRef]

Ried, P.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

Schendel, J.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109(2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W.

Steier, W. H.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. A.

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photon. 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, N.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhagen, E.

Veronis, G.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldow, M.

Wang, G.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109(2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “On long-range plasmonic modes in metallic gaps,” Opt. Express 15, 13669–13674 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109(2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 v,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28, 83–85(1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Fujii, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Dispersion relation and loss of subwavelength confined mode of metal dielectric-gap optical waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 362–364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photon. (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photon. 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Gramotnev and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, S.-H. Jang, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. A. Firestone, N. P. Bhatambrekar, D. Bale, M. A. Haller, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Schendel, P. A. Sullivan, S. Hammond, N. Buker, F. Cady, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “Organic electro-optic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5621, 93–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V.M.Agranovich and D.L.Mills, eds., Surface Polaritons: Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces (Elsevier, 1982).

See the review of Surface Polaritons: Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces by H. J. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 410 (1984).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic perspective view of the proposed phase modulator based on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide. (b) Cross-sectional view of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (c) Transverse electric field mode pattern for (a) even and (c) odd modes. (b) and (d) Electric field distribution along a horizontal line for the even and odd modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (c)  n re changes as a function of W Si for the even and odd modes. (b) and (d) Propagation loss changes as a function of W Si for the even and odd modes. Here W Ag = 10 nm , and the polymer widths are W polymer = 10 , 20, and 50 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b)  Δ n re and Δ Φ versus W Si for W polymer = 10 , 20, and 50 nm . d = 13 μm and W Ag = 10 nm . (c) and (d)  Δ n re and Δ Φ versus W Si for W Ag = 10 , 20, and 50 nm . d = 13 μm and W polymer = 20 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase shift of a 13 - μm -long plasmonic waveguide versus drive voltage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission efficiency versus taper length. (b) Electric field pattern showing the coupling from silicon waveguide to plasmonic waveguide. Waveguide parameters are chosen as W Si = 100 nm , H Si = 200 nm , W Ag = 10 nm , W polymer = 20 nm , and the SiO 2 cap layer thickness is 100 nm .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n = r 33 n 3 polymer E / 2 ,
E = U / W polymer ,
Δ Φ = 2 π Δ n re d / λ ,

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