Abstract

The thermal stability of blue LEDs and yellow YAG phosphor for blue-pumped white LEDs is critical to the performance of white LEDs, including the color properties and luminous efficacy. To investigate the thermal effect on the color properties of emitted white light, the junction temperature of the excitation blue LED was raised by increasing the supplied current. However, by choosing an optical filter with the appropriate transmittance spectrum for processing a portion of the blue light output and reexciting the secondary yellow emission, we observed a reduction in color instability and lower color temperature across the current range of 20200mA. Moreover, the color temperature distribution was improved.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 715–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced forward efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor from white light-emitting diodes using blue-pass yellow-reflection filter,” Opt. Express 17, 7450–7457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1387–1391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Vaitonis, P. Vitta, and A. Zukauskas, “Measurement of the junction temperature in high-power light-emitting diodes from the high-energy wing of the electroluminescence band,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093110–093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xi, “Temperature effects on photoluminescence of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor and performance in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Rare Earths 26, 446–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hon, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 431, 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, “Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 242104(2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “InGaN-based uv/blue/green/amber/red LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3621, 2–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. G.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, J.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. H.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Chen, W.-J.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Chi, G.-C.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C. C.

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hon, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 431, 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Cong, Y.

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DiCarlo, T.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Dong, T.

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, “Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eliashevich, I.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1387–1391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, “Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, C.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hon, M. H.

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hon, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 431, 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J.-F.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. C.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Hu, H. L.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Huang, S. B.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Hung, C.-W.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 715–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 715–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 242104(2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karlicek, R. F.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ke, C.-C.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koszi, L. A.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, J. H.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Kunzer, M.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-H.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, D.-C.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Lee, Y.-H.

Li, B.

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 242104(2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Y. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xi, “Temperature effects on photoluminescence of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor and performance in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Rare Earths 26, 446–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 242104(2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. J.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Lipman, A.

R. Withnall, J. Silver, and A. Lipman, “Measurements of luminous efficiencies of conversion phosphors for blue emitting LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops (ITE, 2006), pp. 431–432.

Liu, D.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. T.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Lu, Y.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKendry, J.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michiue, A.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “InGaN-based uv/blue/green/amber/red LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3621, 2–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.-I.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “InGaN-based uv/blue/green/amber/red LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3621, 2–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakarmi, M. L.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 242104(2005).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, “Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nee, T.-E.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 242104(2005).
[CrossRef]

Obloh, H.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. R.

Ohta, N.

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2006).

Pan, Q.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pong, B.-J.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. R.

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2006).

Sakamoto, A.

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1387–1391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.-T.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J.

R. Withnall, J. Silver, and A. Lipman, “Measurements of luminous efficiencies of conversion phosphors for blue emitting LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops (ITE, 2006), pp. 431–432.

Stall, R. A.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. I.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Tanabe, S.

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1387–1391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tran, C.

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

Tsai, M. S.

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hon, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 431, 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C.-J.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vaitonis, Z.

Z. Vaitonis, P. Vitta, and A. Zukauskas, “Measurement of the junction temperature in high-power light-emitting diodes from the high-energy wing of the electroluminescence band,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093110–093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vitta, P.

Z. Vaitonis, P. Vitta, and A. Zukauskas, “Measurement of the junction temperature in high-power light-emitting diodes from the high-energy wing of the electroluminescence band,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093110–093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-C.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-J.

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Withnall, R.

R. Withnall, J. Silver, and A. Lipman, “Measurements of luminous efficiencies of conversion phosphors for blue emitting LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops (ITE, 2006), pp. 431–432.

Won, Y. H.

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 715–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, “Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-F.

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Q.

Y. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xi, “Temperature effects on photoluminescence of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor and performance in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Rare Earths 26, 446–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “InGaN-based uv/blue/green/amber/red LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3621, 2–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yanamoto, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-H.

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yue, S.

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Y. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xi, “Temperature effects on photoluminescence of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor and performance in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Rare Earths 26, 446–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xi, “Temperature effects on photoluminescence of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor and performance in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Rare Earths 26, 446–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zukauskas, A.

Z. Vaitonis, P. Vitta, and A. Zukauskas, “Measurement of the junction temperature in high-power light-emitting diodes from the high-energy wing of the electroluminescence band,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093110–093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 715–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 242104(2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1387–1391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

C. C. Chiang, M. S. Tsai, and M. H. Hon, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ce3+ doped terbium aluminum garnet phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 431, 298–302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Vaitonis, P. Vitta, and A. Zukauskas, “Measurement of the junction temperature in high-power light-emitting diodes from the high-energy wing of the electroluminescence band,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093110–093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. Li, W. Lin, W. Yang, W. Cai, Q. Pan, X. Lin, S. Li, H. Chen, D. Liu, J. Cai, X. Yu, and J. Kang, “Design and epitaxy of structural III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 478–481 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y. Cong, B. Li, S. Yue, Y. Liu, W. Li, and X.-J. Wang, “Characterization and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped 3CdO-Al2O3-8SiO2 amorphous system for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 493–495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rare Earths (1)

Y. Zhang, L. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xi, “Temperature effects on photoluminescence of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor and performance in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Rare Earths 26, 446–449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59, 390–394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Physica (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

W.-J. Chen, D.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, C.-C. Ke, H.-T. Shen, J.-C. Wang, Y.-F. Wu, and T.-E. Nee, “The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 64680T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. G. Brown, I. Eliashevich, T. DiCarlo, C. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, Jr., R. A. Stall, L. A. Koszi, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3279, 2–7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “InGaN-based uv/blue/green/amber/red LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3621, 2–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, “Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-I. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

B.-J. Pong, C.-H. Chen, S.-H. Yen, J.-F. Hsu, C.-J. Tun, Y.-K. Kuo, C.-H. Kuo, and G.-C. Chi, “Abnormal blue shift of InGaN micro-size light emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50, 1588–1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2006).

R. Withnall, J. Silver, and A. Lipman, “Measurements of luminous efficiencies of conversion phosphors for blue emitting LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops (ITE, 2006), pp. 431–432.

C. C. Tsai, Y. C. Hsu, M. H. Chen, Y. T. Lo, Y. J. Lin, J. H. Kuang, H. L. Hu, S. B. Huang, C. W. Lee, Y. I. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Decay of radiation pattern and spectrum of high-power LED modules in aging test,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 658–659.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) White LED assembly with an optical filter and (b) schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Junction temperature and peak wavelength λ p of a blue LED versus the current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of the transmittance spectrum of an N5 filter. (b) Emission spectrum of a blue LED ( λ p = 458 nm ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectra of YAG phosphor excited by blue LEDs of 465, 458, 450, and 440 nm at 20 mA .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation in color temperature versus current for white LEDs with and without the N5 filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of (a) chromaticity coordinates and (b) color gamut area versus current for sample D white LED.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the angular distributions of color temperature of the white test LEDs.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ E u v * = [ ( Δ L * ) 2 + ( Δ u * ) 2 + ( Δ v * ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
Δ L * = L 1 * L 2 * Δ u * = u 1 * u 2 * Δ v * = v 1 * v 2 * Δ E c * = [ ( Δ u ) 2 + ( Δ v ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
Δ u = u 1 u 2 Δ v = v 1 v 2 .

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