Abstract

Observations of the Moon provide a primary technique for the on-orbit cross calibration of Earth remote sensing instruments. Monthly lunar observations are major components of the on-orbit calibration strategies of SeaWiFS and MODIS. SeaWiFS has collected more than 132 low phase angle and 59 high phase angle lunar observations over 12 years, Terra MODIS has collected more than 82 scheduled and 297 unscheduled lunar observations over nine years, and Aqua MODIS has collected more than 61 scheduled and 171 unscheduled lunar observations over seven years. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group Calibration and Validation Team and the NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team use the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) photometric model of the Moon to compare these time series of lunar observations over time and varying observing geometries. The cross-calibration results show that Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS agree, band to band, at the 1%–3% level, while SeaWiFS and either MODIS instrument agree at the 3%–8% level. The combined uncertainties of these comparisons are 1.3% for Terra and Aqua MODIS, 1.4% for SeaWiFS and Terra MODIS, and 1.3% for SeaWiFS and Aqua MODIS. Any residual phase dependence in the ROLO model, based on these observations, is less than 1.7% over the phase angle range of 80° to 6° and +5° to +82°. The lunar cross calibration of SeaWiFS, Terra MODIS, and Aqua MODIS is consistent with the vicarious calibration of ocean color products for these instruments, with the vicarious gains mitigating the calibration biases for the ocean color bands.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Butler, “On-orbit cross-calibration of AM satellite remote sensing instruments using the Moon,” presented at the International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration, Gulfport, Mississippi, 2–5 December 2003.
  4. H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. C. Stone, “Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810X (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Sun, X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, “MODIS reflective solar bands on-orbit lunar calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2383–2393 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.
  11. X. Xiong, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, “Intercomparison of on-orbit calibration consistency between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” IEEE Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett. 5, 778–782 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Thome, J. Czapla-Meyrs, and S. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395–405(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Pan, J. Xiong, and N. Che, “MODIS pre-launch reflective solar band response vs. scan angle,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770R (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85–S88 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effects on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. Xiong, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, “Intercomparison of on-orbit calibration consistency between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” IEEE Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett. 5, 778–782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, “Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810X (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

J. Sun, X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, “MODIS reflective solar bands on-orbit lunar calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2383–2393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pan, J. Xiong, and N. Che, “MODIS pre-launch reflective solar band response vs. scan angle,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770R (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effects on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. Thome, J. Czapla-Meyrs, and S. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395–405(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85–S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Angai, A.

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effects on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.

Barnes, W.

X. Xiong, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, “Intercomparison of on-orbit calibration consistency between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” IEEE Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett. 5, 778–782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85–S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

J. Sun, X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, “MODIS reflective solar bands on-orbit lunar calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2383–2393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.

Biggar, S.

K. Thome, J. Czapla-Meyrs, and S. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395–405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. J.

J. J. Butler, “On-orbit cross-calibration of AM satellite remote sensing instruments using the Moon,” presented at the International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration, Gulfport, Mississippi, 2–5 December 2003.

F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Che, N.

C. Pan, J. Xiong, and N. Che, “MODIS pre-launch reflective solar band response vs. scan angle,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770R (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Czapla-Meyrs, J.

K. Thome, J. Czapla-Meyrs, and S. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395–405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Eplee, R. E.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effects on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.

Franz, B. A.

Geng, X.

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

J. Sun, X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, “MODIS reflective solar bands on-orbit lunar calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2383–2393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85–S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.

Kieffer, H. H.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effects on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.

Meister, G.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effects on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

C. Pan, J. Xiong, and N. Che, “MODIS pre-launch reflective solar band response vs. scan angle,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770R (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effects on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stone, T.

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stone, T. C.

T. C. Stone, “Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810X (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, “Intercomparison of on-orbit calibration consistency between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” IEEE Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett. 5, 778–782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, “MODIS reflective solar bands on-orbit lunar calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2383–2393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85–S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.-Q.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
[CrossRef]

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.

Thome, K.

K. Thome, J. Czapla-Meyrs, and S. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395–405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

Wu, A.

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, J.

C. Pan, J. Xiong, and N. Che, “MODIS pre-launch reflective solar band response vs. scan angle,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770R (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, “Intercomparison of on-orbit calibration consistency between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” IEEE Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett. 5, 778–782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, “MODIS reflective solar bands on-orbit lunar calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2383–2393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85–S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. J. (1)

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett. (1)

X. Xiong, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, “Intercomparison of on-orbit calibration consistency between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” IEEE Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett. 5, 778–782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

J. Sun, X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, “MODIS reflective solar bands on-orbit lunar calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2383–2393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

J. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85–S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (11)

F. S. Patt, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, G. Meister, and J. J. Butler, “Use of the Moon as a calibration reference for NPP VIIRS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 588215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Thome, J. Czapla-Meyrs, and S. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395–405(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Pan, J. Xiong, and N. Che, “MODIS pre-launch reflective solar band response vs. scan angle,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770R (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, X. Xiong, H. Chen, A. Angai, X. Geng, and A. Wu, “Time-dependent response versus scan angle for the MODIS reflective solar bands,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 745219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, T. Stone, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “MODIS and SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., X. Xiong, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “The cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520X(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, “Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810X (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. J. Butler, “On-orbit cross-calibration of AM satellite remote sensing instruments using the Moon,” presented at the International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration, Gulfport, Mississippi, 2–5 December 2003.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 23, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), p. 55.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SeaWiFS Band 1 lunar image: the difference between the spacecraft pitch rate across the Moon and the normal pitch rate across the Earth causes the elongated lunar image and necessitates oversampling correction of the lunar data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Oversampling correction time series: a) SeaWiFS, b) Terra MODIS, and c) Aqua MODIS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aqua MODIS Band 8 lunar image: the image on the right is the composite for detector 5 extracted from the image sequence on the left.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MODIS lunar images: Band 2 ( 250 m resolution), Band 3 ( 500 m resolution), and Band 8 ( 1000 m resolution).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lunar phase functions: phase functions of the Moon at wavelengths of 412, 555, and 865 nm , as derived by the ROLO model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SeaWiFS/MODIS lunar calibration comparison. a) The three instrument mission-long band averages. b) The SeaWiFS/Terra MODIS EOS Lunar Calibration Experiment. c) The SeaWiFS/Terra MODIS mission-long averages and Lunar Calibration Experiment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SeaWiFS/MODIS vicarious calibration comparison: the inverses of the vicarious gains are plotted so that the SeaWiFS or MODIS measurement is in the numerator of the ratios, allowing comparisons with the lunar observations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SeaWiFS/MODIS mean comparison as a function of phase angle: a) full lunar data sets are plotted for the 412 nm bands and b) full data sets are binned and plotted as means with standard deviations for the 412 nm bands.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SeaWiFS and MODIS Band Comparisons

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Table 2 Lunar Observations

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Table 3 Terra MODIS/Aqua MODIS Biases a

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Table 4 SeaWiFS/MODIS Biases a

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Table 5 SeaWiFS/Terra MODIS Cross Calibration Biases a

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Table 6 SeaWiFS/MODIS Vicarious Gains a

Tables Icon

Table 7 Phase Angle Comparisons for the 412  nm Bands a

Equations (13)

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L Moon ( r , t , λ ) = L T ( r , t , λ ) K vg ( r , t , λ ) K os ( r , t ) ,
K track ( r , t ) = cos α ( r , t ) 1 ( 1 + cos α ( r , t ) ) ( 1 cos α ( r , t ) ) cos 2 γ ( r , t ) ,
Y Moon ( r , t ) = 2 K track ( r , t ) Y obs ( t ) ,
K os ( r , t ) = 1 θ Y Moon ( r , t ) D Moon R Inst-Moon ( r , t ) ,
D T Moon ( ρ , r , t ) = Δ T V track ( ρ , r , t ) ,
V track ( p , r , t ) = V orb ( r , t ) ( 1 + R Inst-Moon ( r , t ) R Inst-Earth ( r , t ) sin ( ρ δ ) V proj ( r , t ) ) ,
V proj ( r , t ) = V orb ( r , t ) · V Moon ( r , t ) V orb 2 ( r , t ) ,
P Moon ( r , t ) = θ R Inst-Moon ( r , t ) ,
K os ( ρ , r , t ) = D T Moon ( ρ , r , t ) P Moon ( r , t ) = Δ T V track ( ρ , r , t ) θ R Inst-Moon ( r , t ) .
K os ( r , t ) = 1 θ Y Moon ( r , t ) D Moon R Inst-Moon ( r , t ) = Δ T V track ( ρ , r , t ) θ R Inst-Moon ( r , t ) .
D Moon Y Moon ( r , t ) = Δ T V track ( ρ , r , t ) ,
P ( r , λ , t ) = K d ( r , t ) A Moon ( r , λ , t ) E Inst ( r , λ , t ) E Sun ( λ ) 1 ,
K d ( r , t ) = ( R Sun Moon ( r , t ) AU ) 2 ( R Sun Moon ( r , t ) MLD ) 2 ,

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