Abstract

The performance of optical systems is typically improved by increasing the number of conventionally fabricated optical components (spheres, aspheres, and gratings). This approach is automatically connected to a system enlargement, as well as potentially higher assembly and maintenance costs. Hybrid optical freeform components can help to overcome this trade-off. They merge several optical functions within fewer but more complex optical surfaces, e.g., elements comprising shallow refractive/reflective and high-frequency diffractive structures. However, providing the flexibility and precision essential for their realization is one of the major challenges in the field of optical component fabrication. In this article we present tailored integrated machining techniques suitable for rapid prototyping as well as the fabrication of molding tools for low-cost mass replication of hybrid optical freeform components. To produce the different feature sizes with optical surface quality, we successively combine mechanical machining modes (ultraprecision micromilling and fly cutting) with precisely aligned direct picosecond laser ablation in an integrated fabrication approach. The fabrication accuracy and surface quality achieved by our integrated fabrication approach are demonstrated with profilometric measurements and experimental investigations of the optical performance.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010

R. Gläbe and O. Riemer, “Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

A. Nebel, T. Herrmann, B. Henrich, and R. Knappe, “Generation of tailored picosecond-pulse-trains for micro-machining,” Proc. SPIE 6108, 610812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultrashort laser pulses: from basic understanding to technical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5147, 106–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1988

Amberg, M.

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Vol. 2 (euspen, 2010), pp. 412–415.

Behrmann, G. P.

G. P. Behrmann and J. N. Mait, “Hybrid (refractive/diffractive) optics,” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H.-P.Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 259–292.

Brunner, R.

Burkhardt, M.

Correns, N.

Dausinger, F.

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultrashort laser pulses: from basic understanding to technical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5147, 106–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

Gläbe, R.

R. Gläbe and O. Riemer, “Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henrich, B.

A. Nebel, T. Herrmann, B. Henrich, and R. Knappe, “Generation of tailored picosecond-pulse-trains for micro-machining,” Proc. SPIE 6108, 610812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, T.

A. Nebel, T. Herrmann, B. Henrich, and R. Knappe, “Generation of tailored picosecond-pulse-trains for micro-machining,” Proc. SPIE 6108, 610812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hügel, H.

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultrashort laser pulses: from basic understanding to technical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5147, 106–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, R.

A. Nebel, T. Herrmann, B. Henrich, and R. Knappe, “Generation of tailored picosecond-pulse-trains for micro-machining,” Proc. SPIE 6108, 610812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Konov, V.

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultrashort laser pulses: from basic understanding to technical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5147, 106–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mait, J. N.

G. P. Behrmann and J. N. Mait, “Hybrid (refractive/diffractive) optics,” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H.-P.Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 259–292.

Nakai, T.

T. Nakai, “Diffractive optical element and optical system having the same,” U.S. patent 6,262,846 (17 July 2001).

Nebel, A.

A. Nebel, T. Herrmann, B. Henrich, and R. Knappe, “Generation of tailored picosecond-pulse-trains for micro-machining,” Proc. SPIE 6108, 610812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riemer, O.

R. Gläbe and O. Riemer, “Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rudolf, K.

Shimada, A.

A. Shimada, “Molecular dynamics simulation of the atomic processes in microcutting,” in Micromachining of Engineering Materials, J.McGeough, ed., 1st ed. (CRC Press, 2001), pp. 63–83.

Sinzinger, S.

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Vol. 2 (euspen, 2010), pp. 412–415.

Stoebenau, S.

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Vol. 2 (euspen, 2010), pp. 412–415.

Stone, T.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

R. Gläbe and O. Riemer, “Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Nebel, T. Herrmann, B. Henrich, and R. Knappe, “Generation of tailored picosecond-pulse-trains for micro-machining,” Proc. SPIE 6108, 610812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultrashort laser pulses: from basic understanding to technical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5147, 106–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Vol. 2 (euspen, 2010), pp. 412–415.

T. Nakai, “Diffractive optical element and optical system having the same,” U.S. patent 6,262,846 (17 July 2001).

G. P. Behrmann and J. N. Mait, “Hybrid (refractive/diffractive) optics,” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H.-P.Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 259–292.

A. Shimada, “Molecular dynamics simulation of the atomic processes in microcutting,” in Micromachining of Engineering Materials, J.McGeough, ed., 1st ed. (CRC Press, 2001), pp. 63–83.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

White light interference microscope pictures and corresponding groove ground profiles in (a) German silver, (b) copper, and (c) chromium realized by direct ps-laser ablation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

White light interference microscope pictures and corresponding profiles of plane gratings in (a) copper and (b) chromium realized by direct ps-laser ablation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs (left) and randomly chosen white light interference microscope pictures (right) with corresponding profiles of the concave gratings in (a) copper and (b) chromium realized by direct ps-laser ablation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Concept of the reflective hybrid optical freeform component (e) in principle composed of (a) the off-axis parabolic mirror, for beam deflection as well as focusing, and the sinelike diffractive structures (b)–(c), depth optimized by rigorous simulations to provide a minimum zero order (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph (left) of the off-axis parabolic grating in Cu realized by direct ps-laser ablation and white light interference microscope pictures (right) from position Cu-P1 and Cu-P2 with corresponding profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Rigorously simulated (black, left columns) and measured (red, right columns) diffraction efficiencies of the off-axis parabolic grating at λ = 543 nm normalized to the total reflected power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

White light interference microscope picture and corresponding surface profile of a copper substrate with a ps-laser polished area (section I R a < 10 nm ) surrounded by an unpolished area (section II R a ,   initial < 22 nm ).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Material Choice: Production Parameters, Specifications of Prepared Substrates, and Grating Accuracies

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Table 2 Plane Gratings: Production Parameters, Specifications of Prepared Substrates and Grating Accuracies

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Table 3 Concave Gratings: Production Parameters, Specifications of Reflective Concave Basic Shape and Grating Accuracies

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Table 4 Freeform Grating: Production Parameters, Specifications of Off-Axis Parabolic Basic Shape and Grating Accuracies

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