Abstract

It is well known that clutter (spectral interference) from atmospheric constituents can be a severe limit for spectroscopic point sensors, especially where high sensitivity and specificity are required. In this paper, we will show for submillimeter/terahertz (SMM/THz) sensors that use cw electronic techniques the clutter limit for the detection of common target gases with absolute specificity (probability of false alarm 1010) is in the ppt (1 part in 1012) range or lower. This is because the most abundant atmospheric gases are either transparent to SMM/THz radiation (e.g., CO2) or have spectra that are very sparse relative to the 105 Doppler-limited resolution elements available (e.g., H2O). Moreover, the low clutter limit demonstrated for cw electronic systems in the SMM/THz is independent of system size and complexity.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “A new approach to astrophysical spectra: the complete experimental spectrum of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2 CN) between 570 and 645 GHz,” Astrophys. J. 714, 476–486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. De Lucia, “The submillimeter: a spectroscopist’s view,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 261, 1–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Baker, F. Slemr, and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, “Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 311–321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

2006 (4)

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9230–9237(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimeter spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst 131, 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Fast analysis of gases in the submillimeter/terahertz with “absolute” specificity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. P. Muller, F. Schloder, J. Stutzki, and G. Winnewisser, “The Cologne database for molecular spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Struct. 742, 215–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Petkie, P. Helminger, M. Behnke, I. Medvedev, and F. C. De Lucia, “The rotational spectra of the 7191, 6191, and 72 vibrational states of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 189–196 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1837–1839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infared quantum cascade laser based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for biogenic nitric oxide detection,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2257–2266 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz.,” Appl. Phys. B79, 725–729 (2004).

2003 (1)

F. C. De Lucia, “Science and technology in the submillimeter spectral region,” Opt. Photonics News 14, 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Harde, J. Zhao, M. Wolff, R. A. Cheville, and D. R. Grischkowsky, “THz time-domain spectroscopy on ammonia,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 6038–6047 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang, V. P. Aneja, R. G. Zika, C. Farmer, and J. D. Ray, “Nonmethane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States national parks,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3133–3155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Matsuura, P. Chen, G. A. Blake, J. C. Pearson, and H. M. Pickett, “A tunable, cavity-locked diode laser system for terahertz photomixing,” IEEE Micro. Th. Tech. 48, 380–387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Observation of pure rotational absorption spectra in the n2 band of hot H2O in flames,” Opt. Lett. 23, 531–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semicondutor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta A54, 197–236 (1998).

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, “FASSST: a new gas-phase analytical tool,” Anal. Chem. 70, 719A–727A (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. T. Petkie, T. M. Goyette, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. C. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

R. A. Cheville and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of flames,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1646–1648(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (3)

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the NO′ stretching mode (n6) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 306–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the ONO′ bending mode (n7) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 62–67 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Crownover, R. A. Booker, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “The rotational spectrum of nitric acid: the first five vibrational states,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 39–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Akalin, T.

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, K.

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Albert, S.

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, “FASSST: a new gas-phase analytical tool,” Anal. Chem. 70, 719A–727A (1998).
[PubMed]

D. T. Petkie, T. M. Goyette, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. C. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aneja, V. P.

D. Kang, V. P. Aneja, R. G. Zika, C. Farmer, and J. D. Ray, “Nonmethane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States national parks,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3133–3155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Baker, A. K.

A. K. Baker, F. Slemr, and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, “Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 311–321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Ball, C.

C. F. Neese, I. M. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with absolute specificity and ppt sensitivity.”

Balslev-Clausen, D.

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barker, T. L.

B. P. Petrucelli, T. L. Barker, and J. A. Woods, USACHPPM Technical Guide 273 (U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen, MD).

Behnke, M.

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimeter spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst 131, 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Petkie, P. Helminger, M. Behnke, I. Medvedev, and F. C. De Lucia, “The rotational spectra of the 7191, 6191, and 72 vibrational states of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 189–196 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Fast analysis of gases in the submillimeter/terahertz with “absolute” specificity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belov, S. P.

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, “FASSST: a new gas-phase analytical tool,” Anal. Chem. 70, 719A–727A (1998).
[PubMed]

D. T. Petkie, T. M. Goyette, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. C. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benne, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bettens, R. P. A.

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, “FASSST: a new gas-phase analytical tool,” Anal. Chem. 70, 719A–727A (1998).
[PubMed]

D. T. Petkie, T. M. Goyette, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. C. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Betz, A. L.

Bigourd, D.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blake, G. A.

S. Matsuura, P. Chen, G. A. Blake, J. C. Pearson, and H. M. Pickett, “A tunable, cavity-locked diode laser system for terahertz photomixing,” IEEE Micro. Th. Tech. 48, 380–387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bocquet, R.

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz.,” Appl. Phys. B79, 725–729 (2004).

Booker, R. A.

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the NO′ stretching mode (n6) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 306–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the ONO′ bending mode (n7) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 62–67 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Crownover, R. A. Booker, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “The rotational spectrum of nitric acid: the first five vibrational states,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 39–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boreiko, R. T.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

A. K. Baker, F. Slemr, and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, “Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3, 311–321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

S. Matsuura, P. Chen, G. A. Blake, J. C. Pearson, and H. M. Pickett, “A tunable, cavity-locked diode laser system for terahertz photomixing,” IEEE Micro. Th. Tech. 48, 380–387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crownover, R. L.

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the ONO′ bending mode (n7) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 62–67 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Crownover, R. A. Booker, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “The rotational spectrum of nitric acid: the first five vibrational states,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 39–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the NO′ stretching mode (n6) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 306–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cuisset, A.

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

F. C. De Lucia, “The submillimeter: a spectroscopist’s view,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 261, 1–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “A new approach to astrophysical spectra: the complete experimental spectrum of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2 CN) between 570 and 645 GHz,” Astrophys. J. 714, 476–486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimeter spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst 131, 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Petkie, P. Helminger, M. Behnke, I. Medvedev, and F. C. De Lucia, “The rotational spectra of the 7191, 6191, and 72 vibrational states of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 189–196 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Fast analysis of gases in the submillimeter/terahertz with “absolute” specificity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. C. De Lucia, “Science and technology in the submillimeter spectral region,” Opt. Photonics News 14, 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, “FASSST: a new gas-phase analytical tool,” Anal. Chem. 70, 719A–727A (1998).
[PubMed]

D. T. Petkie, T. M. Goyette, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. C. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the NO′ stretching mode (n6) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 306–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Booker, R. L. Crownover, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of the ONO′ bending mode (n7) in nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 62–67 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Crownover, R. A. Booker, F. C. De Lucia, and P. Helminger, “The rotational spectrum of nitric acid: the first five vibrational states,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 39–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. C. De Lucia, “Spectroscopy in the terahertz spectral region,” in Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, D.Mittleman, ed. (Springer, 2003), pp. 39–116.

C. F. Neese, I. M. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with absolute specificity and ppt sensitivity.”

Delitsky, M. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, C. L.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducournau, G.

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dunder, T. A.

T. J. Geyer, G. M. Plummer, and T. A. Dunder, “FTIR Technology Development,” http://www.epa.gov/ttnemc01/ftir/reports/entrop01.html.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C.

D. Kang, V. P. Aneja, R. G. Zika, C. Farmer, and J. D. Ray, “Nonmethane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States national parks,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3133–3155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fertein, E.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fortman, S. M.

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “A new approach to astrophysical spectra: the complete experimental spectrum of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2 CN) between 570 and 645 GHz,” Astrophys. J. 714, 476–486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

C. F. Neese, I. M. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with absolute specificity and ppt sensitivity.”

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, T. J.

T. J. Geyer, G. M. Plummer, and T. A. Dunder, “FTIR Technology Development,” http://www.epa.gov/ttnemc01/ftir/reports/entrop01.html.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

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D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
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M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
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Kumar, S.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz.,” Appl. Phys. B79, 725–729 (2004).

Lampin, J.-F.

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
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Lathdavong, L.

Lippens, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz.,” Appl. Phys. B79, 725–729 (2004).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
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G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz.,” Appl. Phys. B79, 725–729 (2004).

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630(2007).
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McIntosh, K. A.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
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Medvedev, I. M.

C. F. Neese, I. M. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with absolute specificity and ppt sensitivity.”

Medvedev, I. R.

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1533–1535 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Minamide, H.

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
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R. H. Jacobsen, D. M. Mittleman, and M. C. Nuss, “Chemical recognition of gases and gas mixtures using terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2011–2013 (1996).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Mouret, G.

F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2356–2358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz.,” Appl. Phys. B79, 725–729 (2004).

Muller, H. S. P.

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Muller, M. G.

Naumenko, O.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neese, C. F.

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “A new approach to astrophysical spectra: the complete experimental spectrum of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2 CN) between 570 and 645 GHz,” Astrophys. J. 714, 476–486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Neese, I. M. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with absolute specificity and ppt sensitivity.”

Nichols, K. B.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jacobsen, D. M. Mittleman, and M. C. Nuss, “Chemical recognition of gases and gas mixtures using terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2011–2013 (1996).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
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Pickett, H. M.

S. Matsuura, P. Chen, G. A. Blake, J. C. Pearson, and H. M. Pickett, “A tunable, cavity-locked diode laser system for terahertz photomixing,” IEEE Micro. Th. Tech. 48, 380–387 (2000).
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H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benne, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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F. Hindle, C. Yang, G. Mouret, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, J.-F. Lampin, K. Blary, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, and G. Ducournau, “Recent developments of an opto-electronic spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Sensors 9, 9039–9057 (2009).
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D. Kang, V. P. Aneja, R. G. Zika, C. Farmer, and J. D. Ray, “Nonmethane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States national parks,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 3133–3155 (2001).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) at a concentration of 1 ppt between 210 and 270 GHz .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of acrylonitrile ( C 2 H 3 CN ) at a concentration of 1 ppt between 210 and 270 GHz (upper panel) and a 2 GHz segment on a 30 times expanded scale (lower panel).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of peak absorption coefficients for six gases at 1 ppt concentration, as well as for clean and polluted atmospheres. The intensity of the strongest spectral curve is plotted above the “1”, the second strongest curve above the “2,” etc. Because the density of points on these log graphs is very high (except at the extreme left), the individual points are represented by continuous curves. The horizontal dotted arrows start at the intensity of the strongest curves of ClCN and extend until they meet the graphs of the clean atmosphere (black) and the polluted atmosphere (red). The vertical dotted arrows show on the horizontal axis the number of curves in each atmosphere that are comparable in strength to the strongest curves of ClCN at a dilution of 1 ppt . The resulting number of clutter lines of comparable strength ( 100 and 1000 , respectively) should be compared to the 10 5 available resolution elements in the 210 270 GHz band. For comparison with Fig. 1, the dotted vertical lines locate the five and 15 strongest lines of OCS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SMM/THz gas sensor based on cw electronic and frequency multiplication technologies.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Atmospheric clutter from a clean troposphere sample between 210 270 GHz (upper panel) and on a 30 times expanded scale (lower panel).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Atmospheric clutter in a polluted urban atmosphere between 210 270 GHz (upper panel) and on a 30 times expanded scale (lower panel).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

1 ppb of OCS (black) in the clean troposphere (red) between 218 and 220 GHz .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

1 ppb of CH 3 CN (black) in the clean troposphere (red) between 256 and 258 GHz .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

1 ppb of acrylonitrile (black) in a clean troposphere (red) on an expanded scale between 230 and 232 GHz .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

1 ppb of ClCN (green), OCS (black), and CH 3 CN (blue) in a polluted troposphere (red) between 267.8 and 268.3 GHz .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

1 ppt of acrylonitrile (black) in a region of maximum clutter in the polluted troposphere (red).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

1 ppt of acrylonitrile (black) in a region of less clutter in the polluted troposphere (red).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

1 ppt of acrylonitrile (black) in a region of less clutter in the polluted troposphere (red). This figure includes a pressure-broadening contribution that assumes a total pressure of 10 mTorr and a pressure-broadening coefficient of 10 MHz / Torr .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molecular Concentrations in the Clean Troposphere and the Polluted Urban Air (ppb) a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Target Species Considered in this Paper

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