Abstract

A zone plate composed of Mo zones having 4mm outermost zone diameter, 100nm outermost zone width, and supported on a silicon nitride membrane was characterized using monochromatic synchrotron radiation in the 2 to 20nm wavelength range. The zero and first order efficiencies were measured and compared to ab initio calculations that account for the optical properties of the materials, the width and shape of the zones, and multiple-layer thin-film effects. It is shown that the thicknesses of the Mo zones and the membrane and the ratio of the zone width to zone period can be independently determined from the measured diffraction efficiencies in the zero and first orders and that the computational code can be used to reliably design zone plates that are optimized for applications such as solar irradiance monitors in the extreme ultraviolet region.

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References

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  1. David Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 337–394.
  2. J. C. Bremer and W. Yun, “Concept for an extreme ultraviolet sensor with a Fresnel zone plate for the GOES-R Solar Imaging Suite,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010P-1–59010P-12 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. Bremer, M. Kowalski, and Y. Feng, “Radiometry and metrology of a zone plate measured by extreme ultraviolet synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5970–5977 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. International Intellectual Group Inc., http://pcgrate.com/.
  6. L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, and S. Yu. Sadov, “Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094901-1–094901-13 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Goray and J. Seely, “Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft x-ray—extreme ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1434–1445(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Seely, C. Brown, D. Windt, S. Donguy, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Normal-incidence efficiencies of multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Solar-B Mission,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1463–1471 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Center for X-Ray Optics, http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/.
  10. H. W. Schnopper, L. P. Van Speybroeck, J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, E. Källne, R. Z. Bachrach, J. Dijkstra, and L. Lantward, “Diffraction Grating Transmission Efficiencies for XUV and Soft X Rays,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1088–1091 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  11. J. F. Seely, “Extreme-Ultraviolet Thin-Film Interference in an Al-Mg-Al Multiple-layer Transmission Filter,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5979–5983 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2006

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, and S. Yu. Sadov, “Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094901-1–094901-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. C. Bremer and W. Yun, “Concept for an extreme ultraviolet sensor with a Fresnel zone plate for the GOES-R Solar Imaging Suite,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010P-1–59010P-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Seely, C. Brown, D. Windt, S. Donguy, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Normal-incidence efficiencies of multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Solar-B Mission,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1463–1471 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1977

Attwood, David

David Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 337–394.

Bachrach, R. Z.

Bremer, J.

J. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. Bremer, M. Kowalski, and Y. Feng, “Radiometry and metrology of a zone plate measured by extreme ultraviolet synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5970–5977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bremer, J. C.

J. C. Bremer and W. Yun, “Concept for an extreme ultraviolet sensor with a Fresnel zone plate for the GOES-R Solar Imaging Suite,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010P-1–59010P-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

Delvaille, J. P.

Dijkstra, J.

Donguy, S.

Epstein, A.

Feng, Y.

J. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. Bremer, M. Kowalski, and Y. Feng, “Radiometry and metrology of a zone plate measured by extreme ultraviolet synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5970–5977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feser, M.

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goray, L.

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Goray and J. Seely, “Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft x-ray—extreme ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1434–1445(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goray, L. I.

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, and S. Yu. Sadov, “Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094901-1–094901-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G.

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Källne, E.

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

J. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. Bremer, M. Kowalski, and Y. Feng, “Radiometry and metrology of a zone plate measured by extreme ultraviolet synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5970–5977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Seely, C. Brown, D. Windt, S. Donguy, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Normal-incidence efficiencies of multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Solar-B Mission,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1463–1471 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, M.

Lantward, L.

Sadov, S. Yu.

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, and S. Yu. Sadov, “Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094901-1–094901-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schnopper, H. W.

Seely, J.

Seely, J. F.

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, and S. Yu. Sadov, “Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094901-1–094901-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, “Extreme-Ultraviolet Thin-Film Interference in an Al-Mg-Al Multiple-layer Transmission Filter,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5979–5983 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uspenskii, Yu. A.

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

Vinogradov, A. V.

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D.

Windt, D. L.

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W.

J. C. Bremer and W. Yun, “Concept for an extreme ultraviolet sensor with a Fresnel zone plate for the GOES-R Solar Imaging Suite,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010P-1–59010P-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zukowski, T.

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, and S. Yu. Sadov, “Spectral separation of the efficiencies of the inside and outside orders of soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet gratings at near normal incidence,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094901-1–094901-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. C. Bremer and W. Yun, “Concept for an extreme ultraviolet sensor with a Fresnel zone plate for the GOES-R Solar Imaging Suite,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010P-1–59010P-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Seely, G. Holland, J. Bremer, T. Zukowski, M. Feser, Y. Feng, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. Goray, “Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170N-1–63170N-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme ultraviolet optical constants for the design and fabrication of multilayer gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 43–53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

David Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 337–394.

International Intellectual Group Inc., http://pcgrate.com/.

Center for X-Ray Optics, http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the central occulter C having 1 mm radius, the outer occulter O having 2 mm radius opening, and the zones Z filling the space between the central and outer occulters. The radiation is incident from the left, and indicated are the undeflected zero order (0), focused first order ( + 1 ), and diverging first order ( 1 ). Also indicated is the detector with 6 mm diameter aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of the diffraction pattern of 15.6 nm radiation where the zero order (0), focused first order ( + 1 ), and diverging first order ( 1 ) are identified.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of the 18.5 nm efficiency of the Mo ZP measured by the 6 mm detector when scanned in distance with respect to the ZP (data points) and the calculated efficiency curves. (b) Efficiency curves for an ideal Fresnel ZP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the measured 0 order efficiency (thick curve) and + 1 order efficiency (square data symbols) with the calculated efficiencies.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the ZP consisting of Mo zones and Si 3 N 4 support membrane and a Ti intermediate layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The curves are the ratios of the calculated first and zero order efficiencies, and the data symbols are the measured ratios. (a) Calculated for fixed open space to period ratio 0.50 and for Mo zone thicknesses of 50 nm , 45 nm , and 40 nm . (b) Calculated for fixed 45 nm Mo zone thickness and open space to period ratios of 0.55, 0.57, and 0.59.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The ratios of the first and zero order efficiencies calculated using the analytical expressions (curve 1) and the PCGRATE code (curve 2). The data symbols are the measured ratios.

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