Abstract

Silica-on-silicon structured channel erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) were fabricated by a combination of the ion-exchange and sol-gel techniques. A small signal fiber-device-fiber net gain of 0.5dB at 1531nm was obtained for a 4cm long EDWA with an optimized waveguide structure. The low noise figure of 4.0dB was also achieved. Samples of different waveguide structures and rare-earth ion doping levels were fabricated to compare the EDWA gain properties. The results demonstrate that a better gain spectrum can be obtained by maximizing the distribution overlap of pump and signal mode intensity. The gain performance can be further improved by reducing upconversion efficiency of the EDWA. This work demonstrates that the ion-exchanged silica-on-silicon waveguide structure is an alternative approach for EDWA fabrication.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (6)

H. S. Tang, Y. G. Li, Y. W. Zhang, Y. F. Li, H. Li, X. Tu, X. Wu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “A semi-weakly confined erbium-doped waveguide amplifier with double-layered buffer/cladding,” Opt. Express 16, 9844–9849 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. A. He, Y. G. Li, Y. F. Li, Y. W. Zhang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Low-loss channel waveguides and Y-splitter formed by ion-exchange in silica-on-silicon,” Opt. Express 16, 3172–3177 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Li, J. P. Huang, Y. F. Li, H. Li, Y. J. He, S. Y. Gu, G. H. Chen, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Optical properties and laser output of heavily Yb-doped fiber prepared by sol-gel method and DC-RTA technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3256–3260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Lou, G. L. Jin, H. R. Gu, and Q. Li, “Improved gain characteristics by forward–backward pumped configuration in erbium–ytterbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 46, 044601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Modeling and experiments of packaged Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped glass waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 413–420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Laliotis, E. M. Yeatman, and S. J. Al-Bader, “Modelling signal and ASE evolution in erbium doped amplifiers by the method of lines,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1589–1600(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

F. Gardillou, L. Bastard, and J.-E. Broquin, “4.25 dB gain in a hybrid silicate/phosphate glasses optical amplifier made by wafer bonding and ion-exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5176–5178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Zimmermann and L. H. Spiekman, “Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 63–70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. Huang and R. R. A. Syms, “Sol-gel silica-on-silicon buried-channel EDWAs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1339–1349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Marques, R. M. Almeida, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Reversible photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped silica-titania planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

C. E. Chryssou, F. Di Pasquale, and C. W. Pitt, “Improved gain performance in Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped alumina (Al2O3) channel optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 345–349 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fick, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and sol-gel techniques,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 573–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Al-Bader, S. J.

Almeida, R. M.

A. C. Marques, R. M. Almeida, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Reversible photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped silica-titania planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

André, F. Saint

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Armellini, C.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Auxier, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Bai, Y. F.

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, S.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

Bastard, L.

F. Gardillou, L. Bastard, and J.-E. Broquin, “4.25 dB gain in a hybrid silicate/phosphate glasses optical amplifier made by wafer bonding and ion-exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5176–5178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology(Academic, 1999).

Broquin, J.-E.

F. Gardillou, L. Bastard, and J.-E. Broquin, “4.25 dB gain in a hybrid silicate/phosphate glasses optical amplifier made by wafer bonding and ion-exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5176–5178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, A. J.

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, P.

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

Cao, Z. Q.

Carriere, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Cassagnettes, C.

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

Castro, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Cerullo, G.

Chen, G. H.

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. L.

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chiasera, A.

A. C. Marques, R. M. Almeida, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Reversible photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped silica-titania planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Chrostowski, J.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chryssou, C. E.

Cianci, E.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, G.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroký, J.

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Barros, M. R. X.

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J. M. P.

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

Delavaux, J.-M. P.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

Di Pasquale, F.

DiCarolis, S.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dyngaard, M.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

A. C. Marques, R. M. Almeida, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Reversible photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped silica-titania planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Feuchter, T.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fick, J.

J. Fick, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and sol-gel techniques,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 573–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foglietti, V.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frantz, J.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Funk, D. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gardillou, F.

F. Gardillou, L. Bastard, and J.-E. Broquin, “4.25 dB gain in a hybrid silicate/phosphate glasses optical amplifier made by wafer bonding and ion-exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5176–5178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, D.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Ghosh, R. N.

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gu, H. R.

N. Lou, G. L. Jin, H. R. Gu, and Q. Li, “Improved gain characteristics by forward–backward pumped configuration in erbium–ytterbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 46, 044601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. Y.

Guglielmi, M.

J. Fick, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and sol-gel techniques,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 573–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guldberg-Kjær, S.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. J.

He, Z. A.

Honkanen, S.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Houde-Walter, S. N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. P.

Huang, W.

Hubner, J.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, R. L.

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

Jágerská, J.

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, C.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Jin, G. L.

N. Lou, G. L. Jin, H. R. Gu, and Q. Li, “Improved gain characteristics by forward–backward pumped configuration in erbium–ytterbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 46, 044601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kane, C. F.

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kevorkian, A.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

Killi, A.

Koper, R. J. I. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

Kostuk, R.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Lahodný, F.

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laliotis, A.

Laporta, P.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13, 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M.

Li, H.

Li, Q.

N. Lou, G. L. Jin, H. R. Gu, and Q. Li, “Improved gain characteristics by forward–backward pumped configuration in erbium–ytterbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 46, 044601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. F.

Li, Y. G.

Liang, H. J.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Modeling and experiments of packaged Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped glass waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 413–420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Y.

Liu, W. C.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lou, N.

N. Lou, G. L. Jin, H. R. Gu, and Q. Li, “Improved gain characteristics by forward–backward pumped configuration in erbium–ytterbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 46, 044601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lum, P.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madasamy, P.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Marangoni, M.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marano, M.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marques, A. C.

A. C. Marques, R. M. Almeida, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Reversible photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped silica-titania planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martucci, A.

J. Fick, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and sol-gel techniques,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 573–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Míka, M.

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. N.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Morrell, M.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Moser, E.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nykolak, G.

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Obarski, G. E.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology(Academic, 1999).

Ondrácek, F.

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orcel, G.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13, 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patel, F. D.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Peskin, A. P.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, P. M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Pitt, C. W.

Polman, A.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poyhonen, P.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Modeling and experiments of packaged Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped glass waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 413–420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rattay, M.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Rolli, R.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Ronchin, S.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Salavcová, L.

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schulzgen, A.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Shen, Q. S.

Shen, Y.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shmulovich, J.

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology(Academic, 1999).

Slavík, R.

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. L.

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spiekman, L. H.

Špirková, J.

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Syms, R. R. A.

Taccheo, S.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13, 5976–5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H. S.

Thomsen, C. L.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tosello, C.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Trouillon, M.

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

Tu, X.

Valle, G. Della

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van den Hoven, G. N.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Uffelen, J. W. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Veasey, D. L.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. X.

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

West, B. R.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Wu, X.

Xu, L.

Yang, K.

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

Yliniemi, S.

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Young, M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zampedri, L.

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zauner, D.

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. R.

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. W.

Zhang, Z. G.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, D. R.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Hűbner, S. Guldberg-Kjær, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er- and Yb-doped amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 μm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Gardillou, L. Bastard, and J.-E. Broquin, “4.25 dB gain in a hybrid silicate/phosphate glasses optical amplifier made by wafer bonding and ion-exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5176–5178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Poyhonen, G. Orcel, W. J. Wang, and J. Chrostowski, “Silver film ion exchanged singlemode waveguides in Er doped phosphate glass,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2167–2168 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and P. Laporta, “Compact high gain erbium-ytterbium doped waveguide amplifier fabricated by Ag-Na ion exchange,” Electron. Lett. 42, 632–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Ondráček, J. Jágerská, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Er-Yb waveguide amplifiers in novel silicate glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 536–541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, “A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607–2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Ghosh, J. Shmulovich, C. F. Kane, M. R. X. de Barros, G. Nykolak, A. J. Bruce, and P. C. Becker, “8-mW threshold Er3+-doped planar waveguide amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 518–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Barbier, M. Rattay, F. Saint André, G. Clauss, M. Trouillon, A. Kevorkian, J.-M. P. Delavaux, and E. Murphy, “Amplifying four-wavelength combiner, based on erbium/ytterbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and integrated splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 315–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

A. C. Marques, R. M. Almeida, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, “Reversible photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped silica-titania planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W. C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Fick, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and sol-gel techniques,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 573–576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. F. Bai, Y. X. Wang, K. Yang, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Song, and C. H. Wang, “Enhanced up converted photoluminescence in Er3+ and Yb3+ codoped ZnO nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5448–5452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Modeling and experiments of packaged Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped glass waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 273, 413–420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Lou, G. L. Jin, H. R. Gu, and Q. Li, “Improved gain characteristics by forward–backward pumped configuration in erbium–ytterbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 46, 044601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Ondráček, L. Salavcová, M. Míka, F. Lahodný, R. Slavík, J. Špirková, and J. Čtyroký, “Fabrication and characterization of channel optical waveguides in Er/Yb-doped silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 30, 457–461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sorbello, S. Taccheo, M. Marano, M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, and P. Laporta, “Comparative study of Ag-Na thermal and field-assisted ion exchange on Er-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Mater. 17, 425–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, M. Ferrari, C. Armellini, L. Zampedri, C. Tosello, S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, E. Moser, M. Montagna, A. Chiasera, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Er-doped silica-based waveguides prepared by different techniques: RF-sputtering, sol-gel and ion-exchange,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 1151–1166(2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. Honkanen, B. R. West, S. Yliniemi, P. Madasamy, M. Morrell, J. Auxier, A. Schűlzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. Carriere, J. Frantz, R. Kostuk, J. Castro, and D. Geraghty, “Recent advances in ion exchanged glass waveguides and devices,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B 47, 110–120 (2006).

Other (2)

D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6 cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.  2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper TuH5.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology(Academic, 1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized PL spectrum and absorption spectrum of sample A. Inset shows the PL decay curve of the 1.55 μm band transition of Er 3 + .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contours of the simulated normalized 2D refractive index change profile of samples A (top), B (middle), and C (bottom), corresponding to 0.1, 0.2,…, 0.9 times the maximum refractive index change Δ n . The area between two straight dashed lines is the ion-exchangeable layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contours of the simulated (left) and measured (right) mode intensity profiles of pump (solid circles) and signal light (dashed circles) of samples A (top), B (middle), and C (bottom), corresponding to 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 times the maximum intensity of fundamental mode. The area between two straight dashed lines is the ion-exchangeable layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for gain and loss measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical gain versus waveguide length at the peak of 1531 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gain spectra of EDWAs in optimum waveguide length for samples A (top), B (middle), and C (bottom) at different pump powers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical gain of samples A, B, and C at the optimum waveguide lengths for different pump powers at 1531 nm and 1558 nm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Upconversion PL spectra of samples A, B, and C.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fabrication Parameters of the Three Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 m-Line Measurement and Fitted Data of Refractive Indices

Tables Icon

Table 3 Simulated and Measured Fundamental Mode Characteristics of Channel Waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measured Optical Characteristics of EDWAs

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C A t = D ( 2 C A x 2 + 2 C A y 2 ) , { C A ( x , y , t ) | y = 0 = C 0 for     | x | < w 2 , t > 0 C A ( x , y , t ) y | y = 0 = 0 for     | x | > w 2 , t > 0 C A ( x , y , t ) y | y = h = 0 for     < x < + , t > 0 , C A ( x , y , t = 0 ) = 0 for     < x < + , y < 0 ,
Γ p s = A ψ p ( x , y ) ψ s ( x , y ) d x d y A ψ p 2 ( x , y ) d x d y A ψ s 2 ( x , y ) d x d y ,
NF = 10 log 10 ( 1 G int + P ASE h υ Δ υ G int ) + η in ,
G int ( λ ) N 2 σ E ( λ ) N 1 σ A ( λ ) α p ,
P ASE = h υ Δ υ ( G int 1 ) N 2 N 2 σ A σ E N 1

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