Abstract

We demonstrate the adverse influence of temporal fluctuations of the phase modulation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) display device on nanosecond laser micromachining. We show that active cooling of the display reduces the amplitude of these fluctuations, and we demonstrate a process synchronization technique developed to compensate for these fluctuations when applying the SLM to laser materials processing. For alternative SLM devices developed specifically for laser wavefront control (which do not exhibit such flickering problems), we show that our process synchronization approach is also beneficial to avoid machining glitches when switching quickly between different phase profiles (and hence beam patterns).

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Wright, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Dynamic closed-loop system for focus tracking using a spatial light modulator and a deformable membrane mirror,” Opt. Express 14, 222–228 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
    [PubMed]
  8. R. J. Beck, J. P. Parry, W. N. MacPherson, A. Waddie, N. J. Weston, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Application of cooled spatial light modulator for high power nanosecond laser micromachining,” Opt. Express 18, 17059–17065 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernandez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: characterization and effects in diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 16711–16722 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Lizana, A. Marquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08012 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal-based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Andilla, E. Martin-Badosa, and S. Vallmitjana, “Prediction of phase-mostly modulation for holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3786–3791 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Oton, P. Ambs, M. S. Millan, and E. Perez-Cabre, “Multipoint phase calibration for improved compensation of inherent wavefront distortion in parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5667–5679 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Yeh and G. Claire, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays(Wiley, 1999).
  16. J. H. Lee, D. N. Liu, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Flat Panel Displays, 1st ed. (Wiley, 2008).
  17. Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., LCOS-SLM X10468 Series—LC Driving System (2010).

2010

2009

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Lizana, A. Marquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Andilla, E. Martin-Badosa, and S. Vallmitjana, “Prediction of phase-mostly modulation for holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3786–3791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernandez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: characterization and effects in diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 16711–16722 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2000

Ambs, P.

Andilla, J.

J. Andilla, E. Martin-Badosa, and S. Vallmitjana, “Prediction of phase-mostly modulation for holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3786–3791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beck, R. J.

Blümel, T.

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal-based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

Carnicer, A.

E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Claire, G.

P. Yeh and G. Claire, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays(Wiley, 1999).

Collings, N.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davey, A. B.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

Dearden, G.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Edwardson, S.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Escalera, J. C.

Evans, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fearon, E.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E.

Gibson, G. M.

Girkin, J. M.

Haist, T.

Hand, D. P.

Hermerschmidt, A.

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal-based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernandez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: characterization and effects in diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 16711–16722 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, A. Marquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeziorska, A. M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juvells, I.

E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karnakis, D.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Kearsley, A.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Kelemen, L.

Knowles, M.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Kohler, C.

Komarcevic, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, S.

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal-based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, Z.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Ledesma, S.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. N. Liu, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Flat Panel Displays, 1st ed. (Wiley, 2008).

Lemmi, C.

Liu, D.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Liu, D. N.

J. H. Lee, D. N. Liu, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Flat Panel Displays, 1st ed. (Wiley, 2008).

Lizana, A.

A. Lizana, A. Marquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernandez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: characterization and effects in diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 16711–16722 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPherson, W. N.

Marquez, A.

Martin-Badosa, E.

J. Andilla, E. Martin-Badosa, and S. Vallmitjana, “Prediction of phase-mostly modulation for holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3786–3791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Millan, M. S.

Montes-Usategui, M.

E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. R.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

A. Lizana, A. Marquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernandez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Time fluctuations of the phase modulation in a liquid crystal on silicon display: characterization and effects in diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 16711–16722 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ormos, P.

Osten, S.

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal-based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

Oton, J.

Padgett, M. J.

Parker, R. J.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parry, J. P.

Patterson, B. A.

Perez-Cabre, E.

Perrie, W.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Pleguezuelos, E.

E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poland, S. P.

Reicherter, M.

Shang, S.

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Sharp, M.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, J. D.

Tiziani, H.

Valkai, S.

Vallmitjana, S.

J. Andilla, E. Martin-Badosa, and S. Vallmitjana, “Prediction of phase-mostly modulation for holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3786–3791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A.

Watkins, K.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

Weston, N. J.

Wilkinson, T. D.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wright, A. J.

Wu, S. T.

J. H. Lee, D. N. Liu, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Flat Panel Displays, 1st ed. (Wiley, 2008).

Xu, H.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and G. Claire, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays(Wiley, 1999).

Yzuel, M. J.

Zwick, S.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, “The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 60–62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ.

A. Lizana, A. Marquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

E. Martin-Badosa, M. Montes-Usategui, A. Carnicer, J. Andilla, E. Pleguezuelos, and I. Juvells, “Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups,” J. Opt. A 9, S267–S277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Andilla, E. Martin-Badosa, and S. Vallmitjana, “Prediction of phase-mostly modulation for holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3786–3791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, “Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystal-based micro-display with HDTV resolution,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Kuang, S. Shang, W. Perrie, D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, M. Knowles, S. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Ultrafast parallel laser processing of materials for high throughput manufacturing,” in Proceedings of LAMP 2009—The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2009), paper 09-021.
[PubMed]

P. Yeh and G. Claire, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays(Wiley, 1999).

J. H. Lee, D. N. Liu, and S. T. Wu, Introduction to Flat Panel Displays, 1st ed. (Wiley, 2008).

Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., LCOS-SLM X10468 Series—LC Driving System (2010).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of SLM embedded into laser machining workstation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluctuations of intensities of zero and first diffraction orders due to flickering of the SLM (temperature of display 24 ° C ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Laser machining using the scan head (scanning direction left to right, speed 12.5 mm / s ) of metal-coated glass slide with binary grating addressed to SLM and (b) modeled machining results based on data shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of flickering for zero and first diffraction order intensities: (a) maximum and minimum intensity values for flickering and (b) difference between the maximum and minimum values.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Machining result after scanning a laser beam modulated by a constant binary grating at a speed of 40 mm / s across stainless steel: (a) without and (b) with flickering compensation using process synchronization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Periodic variation of intensities of the zero order and first diffraction orders when alternating on a single-frame basis between two similar binary gratings addressed to the SLM. The first diffraction orders are almost identical.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Machining result when alternating between two binary gratings with different periodicities on the SLM while scanning the laser beam at a speed of 25 mm / s across stainless steel (scanning direction from left to right) and (b) schematic for synchronization technique indicating when the process is “on” and “off.”

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Machining result with settings as described in Fig. 7 but using the process synchronization technique.

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