Abstract

We demonstrate a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) based on the serrodyne frequency shifting technique. A proof-of-principle system is implemented on the basis of fiber-optic components but opens the way toward an ultracompact integrated LDV system on a silicon chip. With a low laser power of 50μW, the serrodyne LDV was able to measure submicrometer vibrations with frequencies in the audio range.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. R. Whittemore, S. N. Merchant, B. B. Poon, and J. J. Rosowski, “A normative study of tympanic membrane motion in humans using a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV),” Hear. Res. 187, 85–104 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “High-resolution quadruple-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter based on birefringent optics,” Optik 119, 497–499 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “Design and performance of a high-resolution dual-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter,” Optik 118, 345–349 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. V. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18, 18278–18283 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Sheng, L. Liu, J. Brouckaert, S. He, and D. V. Thourhout, “InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 1756–1761 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744–6749 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1484–1486 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D.-C. Su, M.-H. Chiu, and C.-D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-L. Lo and C.-H. Chuang, “New synthetic-heterodyne demodulator for an optical fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 658–663 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. P. Cooper, “An improved heterodyne laser interferometer for use in studies of cochlear mechanics,” J. Neurosci. Methods 88, 93–102 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Johansmann, G. Siegmund, and M. Pineda, “Targeting the limits of laser Doppler vibrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association 2005 (International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association, 2005), pp. 1–12.
  15. A. T. Waz, P. R. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Laser-fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 105301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Li, “Recent advances in coherent optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 279–307 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. C. Cumming, “The serrodyne frequency translator,” Proc. IRE 45, 175–186 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Jin, L. M. Zhang, D. Uttamchandani, and B. Cuishaw, “Modified J1…J4 method for linear readout of dynamic phase changes in a fiber-optic homodyne interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4496–4499 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520–1526(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15, 17106–17113 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1763–1768(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. de Groot, “Design of error-compensating algorithms for sinusoidal phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6788–6796 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Falaggis, D. P. Towers, and C. E. Towers, “Phase measurement through sinusoidal excitation with application to multi-wavelength interferometry,” J. Opt. A 11, 054008 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, “Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109–112 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Li, S. Meersman, and R. Baets, “Optical frequency shifter on SOI using thermo-optic serrodyne modulation,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 75–7.
    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1763–1768(2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sheng, L. Liu, J. Brouckaert, S. He, and D. V. Thourhout, “InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 1756–1761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. V. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18, 18278–18283 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

G. Li, “Recent advances in coherent optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 279–307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, “Design of error-compensating algorithms for sinusoidal phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6788–6796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Falaggis, D. P. Towers, and C. E. Towers, “Phase measurement through sinusoidal excitation with application to multi-wavelength interferometry,” J. Opt. A 11, 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Waz, P. R. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Laser-fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 105301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “High-resolution quadruple-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter based on birefringent optics,” Optik 119, 497–499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15, 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “Design and performance of a high-resolution dual-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter,” Optik 118, 345–349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1484–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520–1526(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. R. Whittemore, S. N. Merchant, B. B. Poon, and J. J. Rosowski, “A normative study of tympanic membrane motion in humans using a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV),” Hear. Res. 187, 85–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y.-L. Lo and C.-H. Chuang, “New synthetic-heterodyne demodulator for an optical fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 658–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. P. Cooper, “An improved heterodyne laser interferometer for use in studies of cochlear mechanics,” J. Neurosci. Methods 88, 93–102 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D.-C. Su, M.-H. Chiu, and C.-D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, “Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. C. Cumming, “The serrodyne frequency translator,” Proc. IRE 45, 175–186 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

A. T. Waz, P. R. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Laser-fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 105301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Baets, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1484–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. Meersman, and R. Baets, “Optical frequency shifter on SOI using thermo-optic serrodyne modulation,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 75–7.
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bortnik, B.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brision, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

Z. Sheng, L. Liu, J. Brouckaert, S. He, and D. V. Thourhout, “InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 1756–1761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1484–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campenhout, J. V.

Chen, C.-D.

D.-C. Su, M.-H. Chiu, and C.-D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, M.-H.

D.-C. Su, M.-H. Chiu, and C.-D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C.-H.

Y.-L. Lo and C.-H. Chuang, “New synthetic-heterodyne demodulator for an optical fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 658–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cioccio, L. D.

Cooper, N. P.

N. P. Cooper, “An improved heterodyne laser interferometer for use in studies of cochlear mechanics,” J. Neurosci. Methods 88, 93–102 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C. H.

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, “Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cuishaw, B.

Cumming, R. C.

R. C. Cumming, “The serrodyne frequency translator,” Proc. IRE 45, 175–186 (1957).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

De Keersgieter, A.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1763–1768(2010).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Decraemer, W.

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “High-resolution quadruple-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter based on birefringent optics,” Optik 119, 497–499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “Design and performance of a high-resolution dual-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter,” Optik 118, 345–349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dirckx, J.

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “High-resolution quadruple-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter based on birefringent optics,” Optik 119, 497–499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “Design and performance of a high-resolution dual-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter,” Optik 118, 345–349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, D.

L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Falaggis, K.

K. Falaggis, D. P. Towers, and C. E. Towers, “Phase measurement through sinusoidal excitation with application to multi-wavelength interferometry,” J. Opt. A 11, 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fetterman, H. R.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E.-J.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Granström, J.

P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Gren, P.

P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Huybrechts, K.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquin, L.

L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jansson, E. V.

P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Johansmann, M.

M. Johansmann, G. Siegmund, and M. Pineda, “Targeting the limits of laser Doppler vibrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association 2005 (International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association, 2005), pp. 1–12.

Johnson, L. M.

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, “Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, P. R.

A. T. Waz, P. R. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Laser-fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 105301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lagahe, C.

Lepage, G.

Li, G.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. Meersman, and R. Baets, “Optical frequency shifter on SOI using thermo-optic serrodyne modulation,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 75–7.
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520–1526(2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Z. Sheng, L. Liu, J. Brouckaert, S. He, and D. V. Thourhout, “InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 1756–1761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Lo and C.-H. Chuang, “New synthetic-heterodyne demodulator for an optical fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 658–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meersman, S.

Y. Li, S. Meersman, and R. Baets, “Optical frequency shifter on SOI using thermo-optic serrodyne modulation,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 75–7.
[CrossRef]

Merchant, S. N.

K. R. Whittemore, S. N. Merchant, B. B. Poon, and J. J. Rosowski, “A normative study of tympanic membrane motion in humans using a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV),” Hear. Res. 187, 85–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molin, N.-E.

P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pineda, M.

M. Johansmann, G. Siegmund, and M. Pineda, “Targeting the limits of laser Doppler vibrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association 2005 (International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association, 2005), pp. 1–12.

Poberezhskiy, I. Y.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poon, B. B.

K. R. Whittemore, S. N. Merchant, B. B. Poon, and J. J. Rosowski, “A normative study of tympanic membrane motion in humans using a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV),” Hear. Res. 187, 85–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roelkens, G.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. V. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18, 18278–18283 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1484–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, P. R.

Rooks, M. J.

Rosowski, J. J.

K. R. Whittemore, S. N. Merchant, B. B. Poon, and J. J. Rosowski, “A normative study of tympanic membrane motion in humans using a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV),” Hear. Res. 187, 85–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

Selvaraja, S.

Sheng, Z.

Siegmund, G.

M. Johansmann, G. Siegmund, and M. Pineda, “Targeting the limits of laser Doppler vibrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association 2005 (International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association, 2005), pp. 1–12.

Sipp, D.

L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spuesens, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Su, D.-C.

D.-C. Su, M.-H. Chiu, and C.-D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tatar, K.

P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Theofilis, V.

L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

Towers, C. E.

K. Falaggis, D. P. Towers, and C. E. Towers, “Phase measurement through sinusoidal excitation with application to multi-wavelength interferometry,” J. Opt. A 11, 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Towers, D. P.

K. Falaggis, D. P. Towers, and C. E. Towers, “Phase measurement through sinusoidal excitation with application to multi-wavelength interferometry,” J. Opt. A 11, 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uttamchandani, D.

van Elburg, H.

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “High-resolution quadruple-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter based on birefringent optics,” Optik 119, 497–499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “Design and performance of a high-resolution dual-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter,” Optik 118, 345–349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1484–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. V. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18, 18278–18283 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vollmers, H.

L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Waz, A. T.

A. T. Waz, P. R. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Laser-fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 105301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whittemore, K. R.

K. R. Whittemore, S. N. Merchant, B. B. Poon, and J. J. Rosowski, “A normative study of tympanic membrane motion in humans using a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV),” Hear. Res. 187, 85–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1763–1768(2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. M.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Aerospace Sci. Technol. (1)

L. Jacquin, D. Fabre, D. Sipp, V. Theofilis, and H. Vollmers, “Instability and unsteadiness of aircraft wake vortices,” Aerospace Sci. Technol. 7, 577–593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hear. Res. (1)

K. R. Whittemore, S. N. Merchant, B. B. Poon, and J. J. Rosowski, “A normative study of tympanic membrane motion in humans using a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV),” Hear. Res. 187, 85–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

Y.-L. Lo and C.-H. Chuang, “New synthetic-heterodyne demodulator for an optical fiber interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 658–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, “Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultrawide-band electrical sawtooth waveforms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533–1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1763–1768(2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520–1526(2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors integrated on silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1484–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, “Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

N. P. Cooper, “An improved heterodyne laser interferometer for use in studies of cochlear mechanics,” J. Neurosci. Methods 88, 93–102 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A (1)

K. Falaggis, D. P. Towers, and C. E. Towers, “Phase measurement through sinusoidal excitation with application to multi-wavelength interferometry,” J. Opt. A 11, 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

P. Gren, K. Tatar, J. Granström, N.-E. Molin, and E. V. Jansson, “Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 635–644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Waz, P. R. Kaczmarek, and K. M. Abramski, “Laser-fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 105301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Optik (2)

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “High-resolution quadruple-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter based on birefringent optics,” Optik 119, 497–499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. van Elburg, J. Dirckx, and W. Decraemer, “Design and performance of a high-resolution dual-channel heterodyne laser velocimeter,” Optik 118, 345–349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

D.-C. Su, M.-H. Chiu, and C.-D. Chen, “Simple two-frequency laser,” Precis. Eng. 18, 161–163 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

R. C. Cumming, “The serrodyne frequency translator,” Proc. IRE 45, 175–186 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Johansmann, G. Siegmund, and M. Pineda, “Targeting the limits of laser Doppler vibrometry,” in Proceedings of the International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association 2005 (International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association, 2005), pp. 1–12.

Y. Li, S. Meersman, and R. Baets, “Optical frequency shifter on SOI using thermo-optic serrodyne modulation,” in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 75–7.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of integrated LDV on SOI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic configuration of the experimental setup. L, laser; C, circulator; F, focuser; VS, vibrating surface; PM, phase modulator; PC, polarization controller; PD, photodetector; TIA, transimpedance amplifier; ADC, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the demodulated results between Polytec LDV and fiber-based serrodyne LDV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FOR for different vibration frequencies and speeds with difference bandwidths of bandpass filters. (a) Bandwidth of 12 kHz . (b) Bandwidth of 24 kHz .

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S o ( t ) E r 2 + α E m 2 + 2 E r E m α cos [ 2 π f OFS t ϕ D ( t ) ] ,
f D ( t ) = d ϕ D ( t ) d t .
ϕ D ( t ) = arctan [ sin 2 ϕ D ( t ) cos 2 ϕ D ( t ) + r ] ϕ D ( t ) ,
e ( t ) r sin 2 ϕ D ( t ) .
SNR α P m P r α P m + P r ,
FOR = 1 RMS ( v P χ v f ) RMS ( v P ) ,

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