Abstract

Future extremely large telescopes will adopt segmented primary mirrors with several hundreds of segments. Cophasing of the segments together is essential to reach high wavefront quality. The phasing sensor must be able to maintain very high phasing accuracy during the observations, while being able to phase segments dephased by several micrometers. The Zernike phase contrast sensor has been demonstrated on-sky at the Very Large Telescope. We present the multiwavelength scheme that has been implemented to extend the capture range from ±λ/2 on the wavefront to many micrometers, demonstrating that it is successful at phasing mirrors with piston errors up to ±4.0μm on the wavefront. We discuss the results at different levels and conclude with a phasing strategy for a future extremely large telescope.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (8)

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupuy, F. Gonté, and C. Frank, “ASM: a scaled down active segmented mirror for the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123B (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova, “Adaptive optics correction of segment aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 59–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Montoya-Martínez, M. Reyes, A. Schumacher, and E. Hernández, “DIPSI: the diffraction image phase sensing instrument for APE,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. Dohlen, “Phase masks in astronomy: from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer to coronagraphs,” EAS Publications Series 12, 33–44 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. G. Lofdahl and H. Eriksson, “Algorithm for resolving 2pi ambiguities in interferometric measurements by use of multiple wavelengths,” Opt. Eng. 40, 984–990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1973 (1)

1934 (1)

F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of the knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase-contrast method,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 377–384 (1934).

Araujo, C.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bourtembourg, R.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brast, R.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, L.

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassaing, F.

Cavarroc, C.

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chanan, G.

Chueca, S.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Courteville, A.

R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dekens, F.

Derie, F.

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dierickx, P.

Dohlen, K.

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, and L. Montoya, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer for piston and tip-tilt sensing in segmented telescopes: theory and analytical treatment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1093–1105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohlen, “Phase masks in astronomy: from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer to coronagraphs,” EAS Publications Series 12, 33–44 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duhoux, P.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dupuy, C.

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupuy, F. Gonté, and C. Frank, “ASM: a scaled down active segmented mirror for the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123B (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, H.

M. G. Lofdahl and H. Eriksson, “Algorithm for resolving 2pi ambiguities in interferometric measurements by use of multiple wavelengths,” Opt. Eng. 40, 984–990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri(personal communication, 2006).

Estival, S.

R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frank, C.

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupuy, F. Gonté, and C. Frank, “ASM: a scaled down active segmented mirror for the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123B (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonte, F.

I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, and F. Gonte, “On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4052–4062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonté, F.

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupuy, F. Gonté, and C. Frank, “ASM: a scaled down active segmented mirror for the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, E.

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hernández, E.

L. Montoya-Martínez, M. Reyes, A. Schumacher, and E. Hernández, “DIPSI: the diffraction image phase sensing instrument for APE,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houairi, K.

Karban, R.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirkman, D.

Langlois, M.

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lanzoni, P.

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lofdahl, M. G.

M. G. Lofdahl and H. Eriksson, “Algorithm for resolving 2pi ambiguities in interferometric measurements by use of multiple wavelengths,” Opt. Eng. 40, 984–990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luong, B.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, P.

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mast, T.

Mazzanti, S.

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, R.

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, S.

Montoya, L.

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, and L. Montoya, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer for piston and tip-tilt sensing in segmented telescopes: theory and analytical treatment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1093–1105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Montoya, “Applications de l’interféromètre de Mach-Zehnder au cophasage des grands télescopes segmentés,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Provence, 2004).

Montoya-Martínez, L.

L. Montoya-Martínez, M. Reyes, A. Schumacher, and E. Hernández, “DIPSI: the diffraction image phase sensing instrument for APE,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. M.

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

Noethe, L.

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, C.

Pieralli, F.

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pinna, E.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polhemus, C.

Puglisi, A.

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, M.

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Montoya-Martínez, M. Reyes, A. Schumacher, and E. Hernández, “DIPSI: the diffraction image phase sensing instrument for APE,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, G. H.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, A.

L. Montoya-Martínez, M. Reyes, A. Schumacher, and E. Hernández, “DIPSI: the diffraction image phase sensing instrument for APE,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, P.

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Surdej, I.

I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, and F. Gonte, “On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4052–4062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

Vérinaud, C.

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vigan, A.

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelm, R.

R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yaitskova, N.

I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, and F. Gonte, “On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4052–4062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova, “Adaptive optics correction of segment aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 59–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, P. Dierickx, and L. Montoya, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer for piston and tip-tilt sensing in segmented telescopes: theory and analytical treatment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1093–1105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of the knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase-contrast method,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 377–384 (1934).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

EAS Publications Series (1)

K. Dohlen, “Phase masks in astronomy: from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer to coronagraphs,” EAS Publications Series 12, 33–44 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

F. Zernike, “Diffraction theory of the knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase-contrast method,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 377–384 (1934).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. G. Lofdahl and H. Eriksson, “Algorithm for resolving 2pi ambiguities in interferometric measurements by use of multiple wavelengths,” Opt. Eng. 40, 984–990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (9)

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Dohlen, M. Langlois, P. Lanzoni, S. Mazzanti, A. Vigan, L. Montoya, E. Hernandez, M. Reyes, I. Surdej, and N. Yaitskova, “ZEUS: a cophasing sensor based on the Zernike phase contrast method,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626734 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupuy, F. Gonté, and C. Frank, “ASM: a scaled down active segmented mirror for the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123B (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, A. Courteville, S. Estival, and F. Gonté, “Optical phasing of a segmented mirror with sub-nanometer precision: experimental results of the APE internal metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, C. Araujo, R. Bourtembourg, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, R. Mazzoleni, L. Noethe, I. Surdej, N. Yaitskova, R. Wilhelm, B. Luong, E. Pinna, S. Chueca, and A. Vigan, “Active Phasing Experiment: preliminary results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Mazzoleni, F. Gonté, I. Surdej, C. Araujo, R. Brast, F. Derie, P. Duhoux, C. Dupuy, C. Frank, R. Karban, L. Noethe, and N. Yaitskova, “Design and performances of the Shack-Hartmann sensor within the Active Phasing Experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123A (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Pinna, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, F. Pieralli, R. M. Myers, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Phase ambiguity solution with the Pyramid Phasing Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62672Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Montoya-Martínez, M. Reyes, A. Schumacher, and E. Hernández, “DIPSI: the diffraction image phase sensing instrument for APE,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Montoya, “Applications de l’interféromètre de Mach-Zehnder au cophasage des grands télescopes segmentés,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Provence, 2004).

S. Esposito, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri(personal communication, 2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of closed-loop phasing for an initial edge piston Δ p = 0.41 λ , i.e., outside of the open-loop capture range. Successive estimations and corrections will always be oriented toward a decrease of the edge piston.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiwavelength phasing scheme illustrated with λ 0 = 750 nm and λ 1 = 650 nm . Phasing is first performed at λ 0 for the edge piston to converge to n λ 0 , then the wavelength is switched to λ 1 and phasing is performed again until convergence. The Δ Π piston difference between the two phased positions is directly related to the ambiguity n and the two wavelengths (see text for details).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ZEUS antisymmetric part of the signal, S asym , as a function of the edge piston on the wavefront given by the IM, (a) and the same measurements folded within ± λ 0 / 2 , (b) for the 2000 nm PtV random configuration on the ASM at λ 0 = 750 nm . Measurements are given for three iterations during closed-loop phasing. Iteration 0 corresponds to the initial unphased configuration. The ASM is partially phased at iteration 5, and completely phased at iteration 10 according to the ZEUS. Borders covered by the VLT pupil and spiders have been removed (see text for details).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standard deviation of the error on the determination of S asym in bins of λ 0 / 8 for the same ASM configuration and iterations as Fig. 3. Only bins with more than 5 available points have been represented, but most bins have at least 10 points, thus providing reliable statistics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Convergence of all segments using our multiwavelength scheme for the random 2000 nm PtV configuration. At the end of iteration 14, the n λ ambiguity for each segment is determined and removed, in theory bringing all segments within the single-wavelength capture range. Segments 7 and 48 have been highlighted because they start with similar piston errors but follow very different paths to reach phasing at λ 0 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Proportion of segments brought within the single- wavelength capture range around 0 (light gray), ± λ 0 (intermediate gray) or larger multiples of ± λ 0 ( n 2 ) (dark gray) after determination and subtraction of the n λ ambiguity using our multiwavelength scheme for the different ASM random configurations tested on-sky.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Segments that failed phasing for the (a) 600 and (b)  8000 nm PtV random ASM configurations. Images correspond to the last iteration at λ 0 when the ASM is considered to be phased from the point of view of the ZEUS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Convergence of all segments using our multiwavelength scheme for the random 8000 nm PtV configuration.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phasing Information at λ 0 and λ 1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the Multiwavelength Results

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S asym = A sin ( Δ ϕ ) ,
Δ p = λ 2 π Δ ϕ = λ 2 π arcsin ( S asym A ) .
Δ Π = Δ p 0 Δ p 1 = n λ 0 n λ 1 = n Δ λ ,
n = Δ Π Δ λ .
| Δ Π | < λ ¯ 2 ,
2 | Δ p | λ ¯ 2 Δ λ .

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