Abstract

Using a single-beam, compact interferometer, we measure the refractive index of liquids in the near IR. This highly compact device relies on a silica capillary with a 50μm inner diameter: it uses a minimal volume of test liquid, isolates the liquid from the humid atmosphere, has broadband operation, and is inherently mechanically stable. These characteristics, in combination with straightforward data acquisition, make it particularly well-suited for measuring the optical properties in the near IR of a wide range of liquids. Using this refractometer, we measure the refractive index of high-index liquids that are expected to be hydroscopic. The accuracy of the refractometer (±0.1%) is demonstrated through measuring the indices of air and pure water. We show that the hydroscopic behavior of the probed liquids has little influence on their optical properties in the near IR.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, Y. C. Soh, C. S. Limb, and C. L. Lin, “A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating,” Lab Chip 10, 1072–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Buffeteau, J. Grondin, and J. C. Lassegue, “Infrared spectroscopy of ionic liquids: quantitative aspects and determination of optical constants,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 112–119 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Bedoya, S. Mahmoodian, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 18, 27280–27290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17, 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17, 22005–22011(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sowmiah, V. Srinivasadesikan, M. C. Tseng, and Y. H. Chu, “On the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids,” Molecules 143780–3813 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7366, 73660D(2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Shi and B. T. Kuhlmey, “Optimization of photonic bandgap fiber long-period grating refractive-index sensors,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4723–4728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

W. Liu, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and M. Yu, “The physical properties of aqueous solution of room-temperature ionic liquids based on imidazolium: database and evaluation,” J. Mol. Liq. 140, 68–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on liquid-ore waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011106–011109(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Iglesias-Otero, J. Troncoso, E. Carballo, and L. Roman, “Density and refractive index in mixtures of ionic liquids and organic solvents: correlations and predictions,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and C. J. Ledderhof, “Integrated optical sensor using a liquid-core waveguide in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 16, 18164–18172 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732K (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Deetlefs, K. R. Seddona, and M. Sharab, “Neoteric optical media for refractive index determination of gems and minerals,” New J. Chem. 30, 317–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, “Tuning the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity with an AFM probe,” Opt. Express 14, 2969–2978 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. Rogers and K. R. Seddon, eds., Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, Vol. 901 in ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005).

M. Deetlefs, M. Shara, and K. R. Seddon, “Refractive indices of ionic liquids,” in Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, R.D.Rogers and K.R.Seddon, eds., ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005), pp. 219–233.
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microfluidic interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 024103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

M. J. Earle and K. R. Seddon, “Ionic liquids. Green solvents for the future,” Pure Appl. Chem. 72, 1391–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

Baets, R.

Baets, R. G.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7366, 73660D(2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bedoya, A. C.

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on liquid-ore waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011106–011109(2008).
[CrossRef]

Bettotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bolger, J.

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microfluidic interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 024103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

Brouckaert, J.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7366, 73660D(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buffeteau, T.

Callender, C. L.

Carballo, E.

M. A. Iglesias-Otero, J. Troncoso, E. Carballo, and L. Roman, “Density and refractive index in mixtures of ionic liquids and organic solvents: correlations and predictions,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G. o

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.

W. Liu, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and M. Yu, “The physical properties of aqueous solution of room-temperature ionic liquids based on imidazolium: database and evaluation,” J. Mol. Liq. 140, 68–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, L. K.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, Y. C. Soh, C. S. Limb, and C. L. Lin, “A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating,” Lab Chip 10, 1072–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, Y. H.

S. Sowmiah, V. Srinivasadesikan, M. C. Tseng, and Y. H. Chu, “On the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids,” Molecules 143780–3813 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, M.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dangler, C.

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Paoli Lacerda, S. H.

De Vos, K.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deetlefs, M.

M. Deetlefs, K. R. Seddona, and M. Sharab, “Neoteric optical media for refractive index determination of gems and minerals,” New J. Chem. 30, 317–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Deetlefs, M. Shara, and K. R. Seddon, “Refractive indices of ionic liquids,” in Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, R.D.Rogers and K.R.Seddon, eds., ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005), pp. 219–233.
[CrossRef]

Devarajan, T.

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

A. C. Bedoya, S. Mahmoodian, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 18, 27280–27290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microfluidic interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 024103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 5440–5447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dongre, C.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumais, P.

Dumon, P.

Earle, M. J.

M. J. Earle and K. R. Seddon, “Ionic liquids. Green solvents for the future,” Pure Appl. Chem. 72, 1391–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, B. J.

D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Girones, J.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillet, C.

Grondin, J.

Gu, Y.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haldar, P.

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Higashiya, S.

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iglesias-Otero, M. A.

M. A. Iglesias-Otero, J. Troncoso, E. Carballo, and L. Roman, “Density and refractive index in mixtures of ionic liquids and organic solvents: correlations and predictions,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

Kicken, H. H. J. E.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Q. Shi and B. T. Kuhlmey, “Optimization of photonic bandgap fiber long-period grating refractive-index sensors,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4723–4728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lassegue, J. C.

Ledderhof, C. J.

Leviton, D. B.

D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Limb, C. S.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, Y. C. Soh, C. S. Limb, and C. L. Lin, “A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating,” Lab Chip 10, 1072–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. L.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, Y. C. Soh, C. S. Limb, and C. L. Lin, “A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating,” Lab Chip 10, 1072–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, M. Y.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7366, 73660D(2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, Y. C. Soh, C. S. Limb, and C. L. Lin, “A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating,” Lab Chip 10, 1072–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and M. Yu, “The physical properties of aqueous solution of room-temperature ionic liquids based on imidazolium: database and evaluation,” J. Mol. Liq. 140, 68–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mägi, E.

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microfluidic interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 024103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 5440–5447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mägi, E. C.

Mahmoodian, S.

Mahmud, T.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Märki, I.

Mitchell, A.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

Mutzenich, S.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ngamsom, B.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noad, J. P.

Nötzel, R.

Oliviera, D.

Osellame, R.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popelka, S.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rane-Fondacaro, M.

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R.

R. Rogers and K. R. Seddon, eds., Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, Vol. 901 in ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005).

Roman, L.

M. A. Iglesias-Otero, J. Troncoso, E. Carballo, and L. Roman, “Density and refractive index in mixtures of ionic liquids and organic solvents: correlations and predictions,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosengarten, G.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salemink, H. W. M.

Salt, M.

Sarro, P. M.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on liquid-ore waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011106–011109(2008).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, K. R.

M. Deetlefs, M. Shara, and K. R. Seddon, “Refractive indices of ionic liquids,” in Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, R.D.Rogers and K.R.Seddon, eds., ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005), pp. 219–233.
[CrossRef]

R. Rogers and K. R. Seddon, eds., Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, Vol. 901 in ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005).

M. J. Earle and K. R. Seddon, “Ionic liquids. Green solvents for the future,” Pure Appl. Chem. 72, 1391–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seddona, K. R.

M. Deetlefs, K. R. Seddona, and M. Sharab, “Neoteric optical media for refractive index determination of gems and minerals,” New J. Chem. 30, 317–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shara, M.

M. Deetlefs, M. Shara, and K. R. Seddon, “Refractive indices of ionic liquids,” in Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, R.D.Rogers and K.R.Seddon, eds., ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005), pp. 219–233.
[CrossRef]

Sharab, M.

M. Deetlefs, K. R. Seddona, and M. Sharab, “Neoteric optical media for refractive index determination of gems and minerals,” New J. Chem. 30, 317–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Q.

Q. Shi and B. T. Kuhlmey, “Optimization of photonic bandgap fiber long-period grating refractive-index sensors,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4723–4728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, J.

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soh, Y. C.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, Y. C. Soh, C. S. Limb, and C. L. Lin, “A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating,” Lab Chip 10, 1072–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowmiah, S.

S. Sowmiah, V. Srinivasadesikan, M. C. Tseng, and Y. H. Chu, “On the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids,” Molecules 143780–3813 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasadesikan, V.

S. Sowmiah, V. Srinivasadesikan, M. C. Tseng, and Y. H. Chu, “On the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids,” Molecules 143780–3813 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ta’eed, V.

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microfluidic interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 024103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 5440–5447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testa, G.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on liquid-ore waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011106–011109(2008).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Tran, C. D.

Troncoso, J.

M. A. Iglesias-Otero, J. Troncoso, E. Carballo, and L. Roman, “Density and refractive index in mixtures of ionic liquids and organic solvents: correlations and predictions,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, M. C.

S. Sowmiah, V. Srinivasadesikan, M. C. Tseng, and Y. H. Chu, “On the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids,” Molecules 143780–3813 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Türck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

van den Vlekkert, H. H.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Drift, E.

van der Heijden, R. W.

Van Thourhout, D.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7366, 73660D(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Valkenburg, M. E.

M. E. Van Valkenburg, R. L. Vaughn, M. Williams, and J. S. Wilkes, “Ionic liquid heat transfer fluids,” presented at the Fifteenth Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 22–27 June 2003.

Vaughn, R. L.

M. E. Van Valkenburg, R. L. Vaughn, M. Williams, and J. S. Wilkes, “Ionic liquid heat transfer fluids,” presented at the Fifteenth Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 22–27 June 2003.

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

W. Liu, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and M. Yu, “The physical properties of aqueous solution of room-temperature ionic liquids based on imidazolium: database and evaluation,” J. Mol. Liq. 140, 68–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watts, P.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilkes, J. S.

M. E. Van Valkenburg, R. L. Vaughn, M. Williams, and J. S. Wilkes, “Ionic liquid heat transfer fluids,” presented at the Fifteenth Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 22–27 June 2003.

Williams, M.

M. E. Van Valkenburg, R. L. Vaughn, M. Williams, and J. S. Wilkes, “Ionic liquid heat transfer fluids,” presented at the Fifteenth Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 22–27 June 2003.

Yang, C. H.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yebo, N. A.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7366, 73660D(2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

W. Liu, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and M. Yu, “The physical properties of aqueous solution of room-temperature ionic liquids based on imidazolium: database and evaluation,” J. Mol. Liq. 140, 68–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on liquid-ore waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011106–011109(2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

W. Liu, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and M. Yu, “The physical properties of aqueous solution of room-temperature ionic liquids based on imidazolium: database and evaluation,” J. Mol. Liq. 140, 68–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on liquid-ore waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011106–011109(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microfluidic interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 024103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “SOI optical microring resonator with poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrochem. Comm. (1)

T. Devarajan, S. Higashiya, C. Dangler, M. Rane-Fondacaro, J. Snyder, and P. Haldar, “Novel ionic liquid electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors,” Electrochem. Comm. 11, 680–683 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Thermodyn. (1)

M. A. Iglesias-Otero, J. Troncoso, E. Carballo, and L. Roman, “Density and refractive index in mixtures of ionic liquids and organic solvents: correlations and predictions,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mol. Liq. (1)

W. Liu, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and M. Yu, “The physical properties of aqueous solution of room-temperature ionic liquids based on imidazolium: database and evaluation,” J. Mol. Liq. 140, 68–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, Y. C. Soh, C. S. Limb, and C. L. Lin, “A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating,” Lab Chip 10, 1072–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. o Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, “Optofluidics: a novel generation of reconfigurable and adaptive compact architectures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molecules (1)

S. Sowmiah, V. Srinivasadesikan, M. C. Tseng, and Y. H. Chu, “On the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids,” Molecules 143780–3813 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Chem. (1)

M. Deetlefs, K. R. Seddona, and M. Sharab, “Neoteric optical media for refractive index determination of gems and minerals,” New J. Chem. 30, 317–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Shi and B. T. Kuhlmey, “Optimization of photonic bandgap fiber long-period grating refractive-index sensors,” Opt. Commun. 282, 4723–4728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 5440–5447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, “Tuning the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity with an AFM probe,” Opt. Express 14, 2969–2978 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Bedoya, S. Mahmoodian, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 18, 27280–27290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, and C. J. Ledderhof, “Integrated optical sensor using a liquid-core waveguide in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 16, 18164–18172 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17, 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17, 22005–22011(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7366, 73660D(2009).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

M. J. Earle and K. R. Seddon, “Ionic liquids. Green solvents for the future,” Pure Appl. Chem. 72, 1391–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Deetlefs, M. Shara, and K. R. Seddon, “Refractive indices of ionic liquids,” in Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, R.D.Rogers and K.R.Seddon, eds., ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005), pp. 219–233.
[CrossRef]

M. E. Van Valkenburg, R. L. Vaughn, M. Williams, and J. S. Wilkes, “Ionic liquid heat transfer fluids,” presented at the Fifteenth Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 22–27 June 2003.

R. Rogers and K. R. Seddon, eds., Ionic Liquids IIIA: Fundamentals, Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, Vol. 901 in ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3D schematic representation of the single-beam fluid Mach–Zender interferometer. (b) 2D schematic cross section. (c) Experimental response measured from the ionic liquid [ C 2 mim ] [ I 7 ] . Values with high noise are caused due to the low power coupling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized intensity spectra for air, water, and five different ionic liquids in the range 1300 nm 1700 nm . Each of them is characterized by a unique color (the inset lists each substance from top to bottom), and the model using Eq. (1) is presented on top of each spectrum as a thinner red continuous line. The error was calculated for λ = 1400 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption through a 1 cm cuvette filled with the ionic liquid [ C 2 mim ] [ I 7 ] as a function of wavelength. (b)  [ C 2 mim ] [ I 7 ] absorption evolution in a 48 h time frame where the background contribution from the ionic liquid presented in Fig. 3a has been removed. Inset (b) chemical structure for C 6 H 11 I 7 N 2 , known as [ C 2 mim ] [ I 7 ] .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ionic Liquid Refractive Index Measured at Different Time Frames for Range between 1300 nm and 1700 nm Using the Interferometer a

Equations (1)

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I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 cos ( δ ) ,

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