Abstract

Fiber collimators are widely used in optical communication components and fiber-optic sensors. Ordinary fiber collimators are made with a circular beam waist radius from 100μm to 300μm. The circular beam waist is too large to switch or shut the beam for certain micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) actuators (such as MEMS linear mirrors). In this paper, a dual-fiber collimator with an elliptical spot is proposed to meet the demands of MEMS optical devices. The elliptical spot collimator has been designed and fabricated, the beam waist spot of which is an elliptical spot with a 231.6μm long-axis radius and a 12.87μm short-axis radius, and its coupling loss is 0.37dB.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Xie, F.-G. Luo, M.-C. Cao, J. Yuan, and Z.-J. Wan, “Derivation of general formula for coupling loss of single-mode fiber collimators with gradient-index rod lenses[j],” Semicond. Photon. Tech. 9, 215–220 (2003).
  2. S. Yuan and N. A. Riza, “General formula for coupling-loss characterization of single-mode fiber collimators by use of gradient-index rod lenses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3214–3222 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.
  4. J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, and W.-C. Kuo, “A novel 2×2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875–882(8) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K.-R. O. Kim, “All-fiber spot-size transformer for efficient free-space optical interconnecting devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6261–6266 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and A. S. Pomportsis, “Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 384–405(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.

Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, and W.-C. Kuo, “A novel 2×2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875–882(8) (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

1999 (1)

Cao, M.-C.

H. Xie, F.-G. Luo, M.-C. Cao, J. Yuan, and Z.-J. Wan, “Derivation of general formula for coupling loss of single-mode fiber collimators with gradient-index rod lenses[j],” Semicond. Photon. Tech. 9, 215–220 (2003).

Cao, W.

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Changho, Chong

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

Colbourne, P. D.

S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.

de Rooij, N. F.

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hennin, S.

S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.

Isamoto, K.

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

Keyworth, B. P.

S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.

Kim, K.-R. O.

Kuo, W.-C.

Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, and W.-C. Kuo, “A novel 2×2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875–882(8) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, B.-T.

Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, and W.-C. Kuo, “A novel 2×2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875–882(8) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. P.

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, F.-G.

H. Xie, F.-G. Luo, M.-C. Cao, J. Yuan, and Z.-J. Wan, “Derivation of general formula for coupling loss of single-mode fiber collimators with gradient-index rod lenses[j],” Semicond. Photon. Tech. 9, 215–220 (2003).

Moffat, S. H.

S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.

Morosawa, A.

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

Noell, W.

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Papadimitriou, G. I.

Papazoglou, C.

Pomportsis, A. S.

Riza, N. A.

Shan, X. C.

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toshiyoshi, H.

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wall, P.

S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.

Wan, Z.-J.

H. Xie, F.-G. Luo, M.-C. Cao, J. Yuan, and Z.-J. Wan, “Derivation of general formula for coupling loss of single-mode fiber collimators with gradient-index rod lenses[j],” Semicond. Photon. Tech. 9, 215–220 (2003).

Wang, Z. F.

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

H. Xie, F.-G. Luo, M.-C. Cao, J. Yuan, and Z.-J. Wan, “Derivation of general formula for coupling loss of single-mode fiber collimators with gradient-index rod lenses[j],” Semicond. Photon. Tech. 9, 215–220 (2003).

Xu, J. F.

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, and W.-C. Kuo, “A novel 2×2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875–882(8) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J.

H. Xie, F.-G. Luo, M.-C. Cao, J. Yuan, and Z.-J. Wan, “Derivation of general formula for coupling loss of single-mode fiber collimators with gradient-index rod lenses[j],” Semicond. Photon. Tech. 9, 215–220 (2003).

Yuan, S.

Zhang, Q. X.

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W. D.

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Isamoto, K. Kato, A. Morosawa, Chong Changho, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A 5 V operated MEMS variable optical attenuator by SOI bulk micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 570–578(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, and W.-C. Kuo, “A novel 2×2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875–882(8) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, W. D. Zhong, Q. X. Zhang, and C. Lu, “MEMS switch based serial reconfigurable OADM,” Opt. Commun. 230, 81–89(9) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Photon. Tech. (1)

H. Xie, F.-G. Luo, M.-C. Cao, J. Yuan, and Z.-J. Wan, “Derivation of general formula for coupling loss of single-mode fiber collimators with gradient-index rod lenses[j],” Semicond. Photon. Tech. 9, 215–220 (2003).

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

Z. F. Wang, W. Cao, X. C. Shan, J. F. Xu, S. P. Lim, W. Noell, and N. F. de Rooij, “Development of 1×4 MEMS-based optical switch,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 114, 80–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. P. Keyworth, and P. D. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2007), 2007.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Direct fiber coupling and (b) fiber collimator coupling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2 × 2 optical switch based on dual-fiber collimators and MEMS linearly actuated micromirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lockable variable optical attenuator based on fiber collimators and MEMS linearly actuated micromirrors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(left) Round spot and (b) elliptical spot, where ω is the beam waist radius of the round spot and ω is the decreased beam waist radius of the elliptical spot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual-fiber collimator coupled with a micromirror.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dual-fiber collimator with elliptical spots coupled with a micromirror.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Views in different directions of dual-fiber collimator with elliptical spot. (a)  X Z plane; (b)  Y Z plane.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation of collimator lens parameters. (a) Thickness of the collimator lens, (b) the waist radius on the micromirror.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical path in the x direction; on the left side are the input fibers with 8 ° tilted plane to increase the return loss.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical path in the y direction; on the left side are the input fibers with 8 ° tilted plane to increase the return loss.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Structure of a dual-fiber collimator with elliptical spot: 1, fibers; 2, pigtail tube; 3, cylinder of the collimator lens; 4, glass tube for assembling; 5, collimator lens; 6, sphere of the collimator lens.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dual-fiber collimator with elliptical spot.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Two images from CCD detector and the intensity distribution of the CCD images.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Preset Values for the Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Parameters of the Collimator After Optimization

Equations (23)

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E ( x , y , z ) = E 0 [ ω 0 x ω 0 y ω x ( z ) ω y ( z ) ] 1 2 × exp [ - j k z + j η ( z ) ] × exp [ - x 2 ω x 2 ( z ) - y 2 ω y 2 ( z ) ] × exp [ - j k x 2 2 R x ( z ) - j k y 2 2 R y ( z ) ] ,
ω x , y ( z ) = ω 0 x , y [ 1 + ( z z 0 ) 2 ] 1 2 ,
R 0 x , y ( z ) = z [ 1 + ( z 0 x , y z ) 2 ] ,
η 0 x , y ( z ) = tan - 1 ( z z 0 x , y ) ,
z 0 x , y = π n ω 0 x , y 2 λ 0 .
1 q ( z ) = 1 R ( z ) - j λ 0 π n ω 2 ( z ) .
Re [ 1 q ( z ) ] = 0.
q i + 1 ( z ) = A q i ( z ) + B C q i ( z ) + D ,
( A B C D )
M x = ( 1 L z 0 1 ) ( 1 0 ( 1 - n ) / R 1 n ) ( 1 L 0 1 ) ( 1 0 0 1 / n ) ( 1 L 0 0 1 ) = ( A x B x C x D x ) .
f = R 1 n - 1 l H = - L n l H = 0 ,
L 0 = f + l H = R 1 n - 1 - L n ,
L z = f - l H = R 1 n - 1 .
M y = ( 1 L z 0 1 ) ( 1 0 ( 1 - n ) / R 1 n ) ( 1 L 0 1 ) ( 1 0 ( 1 - n ) / n R 2 1 / n ) ( 1 L 0 0 1 ) = ( A y B y C y D y ) .
1 q y ( 0 ) = 1 R y ( 0 ) - j λ 0 π ω y 2 ( 0 ) ,
1 q y ( z ) = 1 R y ( z ) - j λ 0 π ω y 2 ( z ) .
q y ( 0 ) = j π ω 0 2 λ 0 .
q y ( z ) = A y q y ( 0 ) + B y C y q y ( 0 ) + D y .
Re [ 1 q y ( z ) ] = 0.
ω y ( z ) = λ 0 | q y ( z ) | π .
L z = 2.417 mm .
R 2 = 1 mm .
L = 1.882 mm , L 0 = 1.338 mm , ω y = 9.391 μm .

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