Abstract

A compact and efficient lightpipe device to deliver light to the human oral cavity for photodynamic therapy was designed and fabricated, having dimensions 6.8  mm×6.8  mm×46mm. An average irradiance of 76mW/cm2 with an average deviation of 5% was measured on a square 25mm2 treatment field for an input power of 100mW. The device limits irradiation of healthy tissue and offers potential for improvement over the current treatment procedure, which requires shielding of the whole cavity to avoid damage to healthy tissue.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5, 497–508 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but nonselective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71, 937–942 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86, 694–707 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Illumination devices for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1480–1490(2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity,” in Proceedings of the SPIE–OSA International Optical Design Conference 2010 (2010), Vol. 7652, p. 76520Y-1:8.
  8. U. Sunar, D. Rohrbach, N. Rigual, E. Tracy, K. Keymel, M. T. Cooper, H. Baumann, and B. H. Henderson, “Monitoring photobleaching and hemodynamic responses to HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer: a case report,” Opt. Express 18, 14969–14978 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86, 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5, 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but nonselective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71, 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, H.

Biel, M. A.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but nonselective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71, 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. A.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5, 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, S. B.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5, 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canavesi, C.

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity,” in Proceedings of the SPIE–OSA International Optical Design Conference 2010 (2010), Vol. 7652, p. 76520Y-1:8.

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Illumination devices for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1480–1490(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassarly, W. J.

Cooper, M.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, M. T.

Dougherty, T.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Illumination devices for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1480–1490(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity,” in Proceedings of the SPIE–OSA International Optical Design Conference 2010 (2010), Vol. 7652, p. 76520Y-1:8.

Fournier, F.

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity,” in Proceedings of the SPIE–OSA International Optical Design Conference 2010 (2010), Vol. 7652, p. 76520Y-1:8.

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Illumination devices for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1480–1490(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goslinski, T.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86, 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, W. E.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but nonselective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71, 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, B.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, B. H.

Hopper, C.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but nonselective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71, 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keymel, K.

Konopka, K.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86, 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loree, T. R.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCaw, D. L.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Payne, J. T.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popat, S. R.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, E. R.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rigual, N.

Rigual, N. R.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohrbach, D.

Rolland, J. P.

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Illumination devices for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1480–1490(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity,” in Proceedings of the SPIE–OSA International Optical Design Conference 2010 (2010), Vol. 7652, p. 76520Y-1:8.

Speight, P. M.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but nonselective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71, 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, M. A.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunar, U.

Tate, D.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thankappan, L.

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tompson, R. V.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, E.

Walker, I.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5, 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, M. K.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

N. R. Rigual, L. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135, 784–788(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Cancer (1)

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82, 1297–1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but nonselective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71, 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (1)

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86, 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol. (1)

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5, 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity,” in Proceedings of the SPIE–OSA International Optical Design Conference 2010 (2010), Vol. 7652, p. 76520Y-1:8.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) LightTools model of solid reflective lightpipe device designed to deliver uniform illumination to oral cavity. The overall length of the device was 4.6 cm . (b) Map of the irradiance obtained on a 6 mm × 6 mm area at 1 mm from the output window. The 25 mm 2 target is represented by the square outline. The simulation was run tracing five million rays, with a peak statistical error of 2%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Average irradiance and (b) average deviation obtained with a vertical and horizontal displacement of the fiber with respect to the input face up to 1 mm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BK7 lightpipe prototype, tested in two configurations: (a) Mylar reflective coating applied only to the 45 ° mirror while the rest of the lightpipe was left uncoated; (b) lightpipe device entirely coated with the exception of the output window.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Numerical simulation and (b) experimental data of the irradiance obtained at a distance of 1 mm from the output window for the uncoated lightpipe of Fig. 3a. The square outline represents the 25 mm 2 target area.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Numerical simulation and (b) experimental data of the irradiance obtained at a distance of 1 mm from the output window for the final lightpipe device of Fig. 3b. The square outline represents the 25 mm 2 target area.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numerical simulation of the irradiance obtained at a distance of 1 mm from the output window for the lightpipe device of Fig. 1a, for which the diffusing film at the input of the lightpipe was removed. The square outline represents the 25 mm 2 target area.

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