Abstract

We introduce a novel (to the best of our knowledge) phasing technique for a coherent laser array. We have accomplished arbitrary phasing in the interval 0π. A seven-channel laser array experiment is built for verification. A custom-made beam arraying structure is designed to arrange beamlets into a two- dimensional hexagonal array. In the phase-locking loop, the wavefront sensing is performed interferometrically. An active segmented mirror is used for phasing, and the control signals are generated by the proportional control algorithm. In experiment, all the beamlets have been properly phased, and the experiment of inertia-free beam steering has been accomplished.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (5)

2009 (3)

P. Yang, R. F. Yang, F. Shen, X. Y. Li, and W. H. Jiang, “Coherent combination of two ytterbium fiber amplifier based on an active segmented mirror,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1349–1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Wang, L. Q. Wang, and S. Y. Zhu, “Formation of optical vortices using coherent laser beam arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1088–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, Y. Ma, X. Wang, H. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and Z. Liu, “Coherent beam combination of a hexagonal distributed high power fiber amplifier array,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6537–6540 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080K (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

M. Vorontsov, “Adaptive photonics phase-locked elements (APPLE): system architecture and wavefront control concept,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Xiao, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Optical phased-array beam steering controlled by wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5429–5433(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bruesselbach, S. Q. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, “Power-scalable phase-compensating fiber-array transceiver for laser communications through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 22, 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

1979 (1)

Ao, M.

R. Yang, P. Yang, L. Dong, M. Ao, and B. Xu, “A strip extraction algorithm for phase noise measurement and coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 19–22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J. T.

Benham, V.

Bentley, A. E.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Beresnev, L. A.

L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruesselbach, H.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Q. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, “Power-scalable phase-compensating fiber-array transceiver for laser communications through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 22, 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Cheung, E. C.

Culpepper, M. A.

Dong, L.

R. Yang, P. Yang, L. Dong, M. Ao, and B. Xu, “A strip extraction algorithm for phase noise measurement and coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 19–22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Epp, P.

Fan, X.

Fan, X. Y.

X. Y. Fan, J. J. Liu, J. S. Liu, and J. L. Wu, “Coherent combining of a seven-element hexagonal fiber array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 274–279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K.

Ghatak, A. K.

Goodno, G. D.

Gruetzner, J. K.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

Hou, J.

Howland, D.

Hu, W.

Hughes, J. L.

Injeyan, H.

Jiang, W. H.

P. Yang, R. F. Yang, F. Shen, X. Y. Li, and W. H. Jiang, “Coherent combination of two ytterbium fiber amplifier based on an active segmented mirror,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1349–1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. F.

Jones, D. C.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Q. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, “Power-scalable phase-compensating fiber-array transceiver for laser communications through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 22, 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. A.

Komine, H.

Kudielka, K. H.

Leeb, W. R.

Leger, J. R.

Li, X. Y.

Y. Zheng, X. H. Wang, F. Shen, and X. Y. Li, “Generation of dark hollow beam via coherent combination based on adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18, 26946–26958 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, R. F. Yang, F. Shen, X. Y. Li, and W. H. Jiang, “Coherent combination of two ytterbium fiber amplifier based on an active segmented mirror,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1349–1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, J. J.

X. Y. Fan, J. J. Liu, J. S. Liu, and J. L. Wu, “Coherent combining of a seven-element hexagonal fiber array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 274–279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. S.

X. Y. Fan, J. J. Liu, J. S. Liu, and J. L. Wu, “Coherent combining of a seven-element hexagonal fiber array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 274–279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

Liu, Z.

Long, W.

Lu, C. A.

Lü, B.

Ma, H.

Ma, Y.

Mangir, M.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Q. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, “Power-scalable phase-compensating fiber-array transceiver for laser communications through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 22, 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McClellan, M.

McNaught, S. J.

Minden, M.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Q. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, “Power-scalable phase-compensating fiber-array transceiver for laser communications through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 22, 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

Morgan, R.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Neal, D. R.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D.

Neubert, W. M.

Pilkington, D.

Polnau, E.

L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, S.

Riza, N. A.

Rosenthal, R. R.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A. D.

Scholtz, A. L.

Shay, T. M.

Shen, F.

Y. Zheng, X. H. Wang, F. Shen, and X. Y. Li, “Generation of dark hollow beam via coherent combination based on adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 18, 26946–26958 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, R. F. Yang, F. Shen, X. Y. Li, and W. H. Jiang, “Coherent combination of two ytterbium fiber amplifier based on an active segmented mirror,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1349–1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R.

Smith, T. G.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Sollee, J.

Spring, J.

Swanson, G. J.

Tucker, S. D.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Vorontsov, M.

M. Vorontsov, “Adaptive photonics phase-locked elements (APPLE): system architecture and wavefront control concept,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vorontsov, M. A.

L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. G.

L. G. Wang, L. Q. Wang, and S. Y. Zhu, “Formation of optical vortices using coherent laser beam arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1088–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. Q.

L. G. Wang, L. Q. Wang, and S. Y. Zhu, “Formation of optical vortices using coherent laser beam arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1088–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Q.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Q. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, “Power-scalable phase-compensating fiber-array transceiver for laser communications through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 22, 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, X. H.

Warren, M. E.

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

Weiss, S. B.

Weyrauch, T.

L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Wu, J. L.

X. Y. Fan, J. J. Liu, J. S. Liu, and J. L. Wu, “Coherent combining of a seven-element hexagonal fiber array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 274–279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, F.

Xiao, R.

Xu, A.

Xu, B.

R. Yang, P. Yang, L. Dong, M. Ao, and B. Xu, “A strip extraction algorithm for phase noise measurement and coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 19–22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Xu, X.

Yang, P.

R. Yang, P. Yang, L. Dong, M. Ao, and B. Xu, “A strip extraction algorithm for phase noise measurement and coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 19–22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, R. F. Yang, F. Shen, X. Y. Li, and W. H. Jiang, “Coherent combination of two ytterbium fiber amplifier based on an active segmented mirror,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1349–1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R.

R. Yang, P. Yang, L. Dong, M. Ao, and B. Xu, “A strip extraction algorithm for phase noise measurement and coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 19–22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. F.

P. Yang, R. F. Yang, F. Shen, X. Y. Li, and W. H. Jiang, “Coherent combination of two ytterbium fiber amplifier based on an active segmented mirror,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1349–1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

Zheng, R.

Zheng, Y.

Zhou, P.

Zhu, S. Y.

L. G. Wang, L. Q. Wang, and S. Y. Zhu, “Formation of optical vortices using coherent laser beam arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1088–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Yang, P. Yang, L. Dong, M. Ao, and B. Xu, “A strip extraction algorithm for phase noise measurement and coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 19–22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

H. Bruesselbach, S. Q. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, “Power-scalable phase-compensating fiber-array transceiver for laser communications through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 22, 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. G. Wang, L. Q. Wang, and S. Y. Zhu, “Formation of optical vortices using coherent laser beam arrays,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1088–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, R. F. Yang, F. Shen, X. Y. Li, and W. H. Jiang, “Coherent combination of two ytterbium fiber amplifier based on an active segmented mirror,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1349–1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

X. Y. Fan, J. J. Liu, J. S. Liu, and J. L. Wu, “Coherent combining of a seven-element hexagonal fiber array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 274–279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. Vorontsov, “Adaptive photonics phase-locked elements (APPLE): system architecture and wavefront control concept,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 589501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Neal, S. D. Tucker, R. Morgan, T. G. Smith, M. E. Warren, J. K. Gruetzner, R. R. Rosenthal, and A. E. Bentley, “Multisegment coherent beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 80–93(1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080K (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental configuration. The thin line indicates the fiber link, and the thick line indicates the cable link. The photos show the custom-made devices. The picture of the ZOIFs is taken by an infrared viewer. The subfigure in the lower left part shows the configuration of the CLA and ASM. They match each other accurately.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PD voltage signal and far-field pattern: (a) open loop and (b) closed loop.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Voltage evolution curve of the whole course. The notes under the curve are the needed phases and the corresponding aim voltages. Especially, the 0 and 2 π phasing are equivalent because the piston phase is 2 π periodic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Record of arbitrary phasing and beam steering experiment. (a) The first row graphically shows five initial CLA wavefronts. It should be noticed that the 2 π phase in the outmost left and right columns refers to the special 0 / 2 π phasing case. The second row is the numerical simulation results. The Fraunhofer diffraction is calculated. These patterns show the ideal far fields. The last row shows the experimental far-field results. The marks highlight the main lobe positions. (b) The main lobe positions in a diagram. The possible deflection angle of inertia-free been steering is the diffraction-limited divergence: λ / D . The solid lines indicate the main lobe scanning track by use of 0 π phasing, and the dashed lines indicate the potential scanning track, which requires 0 2 π phasing.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z j = u j + u ref = a j exp ( i ϕ j ) + a ref exp ( i ϕ ref ) ,
I j = Z j Z j * = a j 2 + a ref 2 + 2 a j a ref cos ( ϕ ref ϕ j ) .
I j max = a j 2 + a ref 2 + 2 a j a ref , I j min = a j 2 + a ref 2 2 a j a ref .
I j = ( I j max + I j min ) / 2 + cos ( ϕ ref ϕ j ) · ( I j max I j min ) / 2.
ϕ j = arccos [ 2 I j ( I j max + I j min ) I j max I j min ] .
V j aim = ( V j max + V j min ) 2 + ( V j max V j min ) 2 cos ϕ j .
V j ( k + 1 ) = V j ( k ) + γ j ( V j aim V j ( k ) ) ,
sin Δ θ Δ θ = Δ ϕ · λ 2 π D ,

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