Abstract

We propose an integrating sphere photometer with six detection ports for total luminous flux measurement, which significantly improves the uniformity of spatial response compared to the conventional single-port detection design. Numerical simulations based on the geometric radiative transfer equation show that a spatial response distribution function of the new design is uniform within 2% with respect to all spatial directions. The related spatial mismatch error is calculated to be less than 0.3% for all the realistic cases of angular intensity distribution of a test lamp. As a result, the new design practically eliminates the spatial mismatch error of an integrating sphere photometer, so that a high-accuracy measurement can be achieved without the complicated spatial mismatch correction procedure.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Palmer and B. G. Grant, The Art of Radiometry (SPIE, 2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Schanda, “CIE colorimetry,” in Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System, J.Schanda, ed. (Wiley, 2007) pp. 47–58.
  3. Commision Internationale de l'Éclairage, “The measurement of luminous flux,” Tech. Rep. CIE 084-1989 (CIE, 1989).
  4. Y. Ohno, “Photometric standards,” in Handbook of Applied Photometry, C.DeCusatis, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 159–173.
  5. V. R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Z. 29, 595–597 (1900).
  6. Y. Ohno, “Integrating sphere simulation: application to total flux scale realization,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2637–2647(1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D2-37–D2-40.
  8. Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
    [PubMed]
  11. M. Szylowski, M. Mossman, D. Barclay, and L. Whitehead, “Novel fiber-based integrating sphere for luminous flux measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Park, S.-N. Park, and D.-H. Lee, “Correction of self-screening effect in integrating sphere-based measurement of total luminous flux of large-area surface-emitting light sources,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3831–3839 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Szylowski, M. Mossman, D. Barclay, and L. Whitehead, “Novel fiber-based integrating sphere for luminous flux measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1900 (1)

V. R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Z. 29, 595–597 (1900).

Barclay, D.

M. Szylowski, M. Mossman, D. Barclay, and L. Whitehead, “Novel fiber-based integrating sphere for luminous flux measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grant, B. G.

J. M. Palmer and B. G. Grant, The Art of Radiometry (SPIE, 2009).
[CrossRef]

Hovila, J.

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.-H.

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D2-37–D2-40.

Kim, Y.-W.

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

Lee, D.-H.

S. Park, S.-N. Park, and D.-H. Lee, “Correction of self-screening effect in integrating sphere-based measurement of total luminous flux of large-area surface-emitting light sources,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3831–3839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

Mossman, M.

M. Szylowski, M. Mossman, D. Barclay, and L. Whitehead, “Novel fiber-based integrating sphere for luminous flux measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Integrating sphere simulation: application to total flux scale realization,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2637–2647(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohno, “Photometric standards,” in Handbook of Applied Photometry, C.DeCusatis, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 159–173.

Palmer, J. M.

J. M. Palmer and B. G. Grant, The Art of Radiometry (SPIE, 2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, S.-N. Park, and D.-H. Lee, “Correction of self-screening effect in integrating sphere-based measurement of total luminous flux of large-area surface-emitting light sources,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3831–3839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D2-37–D2-40.

Park, S.-N.

S. Park, S.-N. Park, and D.-H. Lee, “Correction of self-screening effect in integrating sphere-based measurement of total luminous flux of large-area surface-emitting light sources,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3831–3839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D2-37–D2-40.

Schanda, J.

J. Schanda, “CIE colorimetry,” in Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System, J.Schanda, ed. (Wiley, 2007) pp. 47–58.

Szylowski, M.

M. Szylowski, M. Mossman, D. Barclay, and L. Whitehead, “Novel fiber-based integrating sphere for luminous flux measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toivanen, P.

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ulbricht, V. R.

V. R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Z. 29, 595–597 (1900).

Whitehead, L.

M. Szylowski, M. Mossman, D. Barclay, and L. Whitehead, “Novel fiber-based integrating sphere for luminous flux measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, N.-J.

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D2-37–D2-40.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Elektrotech. Z. (1)

V. R. Ulbricht, “Die Bestimmung der mittleren räumlichen Lichtintensität durch nur eine Messung,” Elektrotech. Z. 29, 595–597 (1900).

Metrologia (2)

Y. Ohno, “Detector-based luminous-flux calibration using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 35, 473–478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hovila, P. Toivanen, and E. Ikonen, “Realization of the unit of luminous flux at the HUT using the absolute integrating-sphere method,” Metrologia 41, 407–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Szylowski, M. Mossman, D. Barclay, and L. Whitehead, “Novel fiber-based integrating sphere for luminous flux measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. Park, D.-H. Lee, Y.-W. Kim, and S.-N. Park, “Absolute integrating sphere method for total luminous flux of LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (KRISS, 2008), pp. 215–216.
[PubMed]

S. Park, J.-H. Jeon, N.-J. Yoo, and S.-N. Park, “Calculation of spatial response distribution function of an integrating sphere for LED total luminous flux measurement using a commercial Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulator,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D2-37–D2-40.

J. M. Palmer and B. G. Grant, The Art of Radiometry (SPIE, 2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Schanda, “CIE colorimetry,” in Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System, J.Schanda, ed. (Wiley, 2007) pp. 47–58.

Commision Internationale de l'Éclairage, “The measurement of luminous flux,” Tech. Rep. CIE 084-1989 (CIE, 1989).

Y. Ohno, “Photometric standards,” in Handbook of Applied Photometry, C.DeCusatis, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1998), pp. 159–173.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Basic design of a conventional one-port integrating sphere photometer, (b) SRDF of the one-port integrating sphere photometer, K 1 p ( θ , φ ) , as a function of the polar angle θ at any azimuth angle φ. The SRDF is calculated for the parameters ρ = 95 % , R = 0.75 m , R b = R / 4 , R w = 0.025 m , D = 2 R / 3 , and D L = 0 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the proposed six-port integrating sphere photometer. The diagram depicts only four detection ports located along the + z , z , + x , and x axes. The other two detectors are located along the + y and y axes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SRDF of the six-port integrating sphere photometer, calculated by numerically integrating the radiative transfer equation for the configuration of Fig. 2 with the parameters ρ = 95 % , R = 0.75 m , R b = R / 4 , R w = 0.025 m , D = 2 R / 3 , and D L = 0 . (a)–(c) SRDF from the illuminance on only one detection port termed as K 6 p , 1 ( θ , φ ) , (d)–(f) SRDF from the illuminance averaged on all the six detection ports termed as K 6 p ( θ , φ ) . (a) and (d) show the three-dimensional plots of the SRDFs as mapped on a sphere. (b) and (e) show the plots of the SRDFs on a rectangular ( θ , φ ) -coordinate system. (c) and (f) show the plots of the SRDFs as a function of θ at the fixed values of φ = 90 ° (cross symbols connected with a blue curve) and φ = 45 ° (rectangular symbols connected with a green curve), which correspond to the cross sections on (b) and (e), respectively, along the indicated white dotted lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SCF of the integrating sphere photometers calculated based on the SRDFs and the angular intensity dis tributions of test lamps I ( α ) = cos n α with n = 1 , 2, 5, 12, and 60. (a)–(e) SCF for the one-port integrating sphere photometer of Fig. 1, (f)–(j) SCF of the six-port integrating sphere photometer based on the averaged SRDF in Figs. 3d, 3e, 3f. The plots (a) to (e) for the one-port sphere show the SCF results as a function of polar angle θ at a fixed azimuth angle of φ = 0 , where ( θ , φ ) indicates the illuminating direction of the test lamp. The plots (f) to (j) for the six-port sphere show the SCF results as a function of polar angle θ at different azimuth angles varying from φ = 0 ° to 45 ° , indicated by the different colored curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the SCF on the baffle position D. The maximum and the minimum values of the SCF from all possible illuminating directions ( θ , φ ) are plotted as a function of the angular bandwidth of the test lamp at different values of D, indicated by connected symbols of different colors. (R is the radius of the integrating sphere.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the SCF on the baffle radius R b . The maximum and the minimum values of the SCF from all possible illuminating directions ( θ , φ ) are plotted as a function of the angular bandwidth of the test lamp at different values of R b , indicated by connected symbols of different colors. (R is the radius of the integrating sphere.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the SCF on the wall reflectance ρ. The maximum and the minimum values of the SCF from all possible illuminating directions ( θ , φ ) are plotted as a function of the angular bandwidth of the test lamp at different values of ρ, indicated by connected symbols of different colors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of the SCF on the lamp position D L . The maximum and the minimum values of the SCF from all possible illuminating directions ( θ , φ ) are plotted as a function of the angular bandwidth of the test lamp at different values of D L , indicated by connected symbols of different colors. (R is the radius of the integrating sphere.)

Equations (4)

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K 1 p ( θ , ϕ ) = E w Φ beam ( θ , ϕ ) ,
SCF = I ( θ , ϕ ) d Ω K ( θ , ϕ ) d Ω 4 π I ( θ , ϕ ) K ( θ , ϕ ) d Ω .
K 6 p ( θ , ϕ ) = 1 6 i = 1 6 K 6 p , i ( θ , ϕ ) 1 6 i = 1 6 E w , i Φ beam ( θ , ϕ ) ,
K 6 p ( θ , ϕ ) 1 6 { K 1 p [ + z ] ( θ , ϕ ) + K 1 p [ z ] ( θ , ϕ ) + K 1 p [ + x ] ( θ , ϕ ) + K 1 p [ x ] ( θ , ϕ ) + K 1 p [ + y ] ( θ , ϕ ) + K 1 p [ y ] ( θ , ϕ ) } ,

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