Abstract

The optical constants of erbium (Er) films were obtained in the 3.251580eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. Thin films of Er were deposited by evaporation in ultra high vacuum conditions and their transmittance was measured in situ. Substrates consisted of a thin C film supported on a grid. Transmittance measurements were used to obtain the extinction coefficient k of the Er films. The refractive index n of Er was calculated using the Kramers–Krönig analysis. k data were extrapolated both on the high- and low-energy parts of the spectrum by using experimental data and calculated k values available in the literature. Er, similar to other lanthanides, has a low-absorption band below the O2,3 edge onset; the smallest absorption was measured at ~22.5eV. Therefore, Er is a promising material for filters and multilayer coatings in the energy range below the O2,3 edge, in which materials typically have an absorption stronger than at other energies. Good consistency of the data resulted from the application of f and inertial sum rules.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of samarium, holmium, and erbium in the 1.5-850 eV spectral range using a transmittance method,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6006–6013 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, and J. F. Seely, “Measurement of dysprosium optical constants in the 2–830 eV spectral range using a transmittance method, and compilation of the revised optical constants of lanthanum, terbium, neodymium, and gadolinium,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3084–3093 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of neodymium and gadolinium in the 3 nm to 100 nm wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170U (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50–1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, and V. V. Kondratenko, “Efficient method for the determination of extreme-ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 298–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of Sc films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Naletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, “Monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 105–113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, “Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444–3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. C. Vicentin, S. Turchini, F. Yubero, J. Vogel, and M. Sacchi, “Absorption cross sections at the M4,5 edges of rare earths: a soft X-ray transmission experiment,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 74, 187–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. Öncan, L. Ward, and M. A. Player, “The optical properties of thin erbium films,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 361–364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Ch. Dzionk, W. Fiedler, M. v. Lucke, and P. Zimmermann, “Photoion yield spectra of the lanthanides in the region of the 5p excitation: the elements Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3572–3574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

F. Della Valle and S. Modesti, “Exchange-excited f−f transitions in the electron-energy-loss spectra of rare-earth metals,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 933–941 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Y. V. Knyazev and G. A. Bolotin, “Anisotropy of optical absorption in erbium and thulium single crystals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 61, 57–63 (1986).

1985 (4)

B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, and J. C. Fuggle, G. A. Sawatzky, R. C. Karnatak, and J.-M. Esteva, “3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3d94fn+1 multiplets of the lanthanides,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 5107–5118 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Netzer, G. Strasser, G. Rosina, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Valence excitations of rare earths by electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 152/153, 757–764 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Strasser, G. Rosina, J. A. D. Matthew, and F. P. Netzer, “Core level excitations in the lanthanides by electron energy loss spectroscopy. I: 4 d and 3 d excitations,” J. Phys. F. Met. Phys. 15, 739–751 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar, W. D. Brewer, G. Kalkowski, G. Kaindl, and E. Paparazzo, “Photoabsorption by the 3 d shell in Ce, Pr, Ho, and Er: Observations and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2242–2248(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

G. Kaindl, G. Kalkowski, W. D. Brewer, B. Perscheid, and F. Holtzberg, “M-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of 4finstabilities in rare-earth systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1910–1915 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

G. Materlik, J. E. Müller, and J. W. Wilkins, “L-edge absorption spectra of the rare earths: assessment of the single-particle picture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 267–270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Jiles and M. P. Staines, “Optical properties of the heavy rare-earth metals: piezoreflectance of gadolinium, dysprosium, and erbium,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 5746–5755 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection, E=100–2000 eV, Z=1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. Bertel, F. P. Netzer, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Comparison of the electron energy loss spectrum of erbium metal with Er/O2 and Er/H2,” Surf. Sci. 103, 1–12 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612–1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. V. Knyazev and M. N. Noskov, “Optical absorption of erbium in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states,” Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 4, 184–186 (1978).

1977 (1)

D. H. Tracy, “Photoabsorption structure in lanthanides: 5 p subshell spectra of Sm I, Eu I, Dy I, Ho I, Er I, Tm I, and Yb I,” Proc. R. Soc. A 357, 485–498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. Colliex, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, “Analysis of the electron excitation spectra in heavy rare earth metals, hydrides and oxides,” J. Phys. 37, 397–406 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

J. H. Weaver and D. W. Lynch, “Anisotropic optical properties of heavy-rare-earth single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1324–1327 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizek and K. N. R. Taylor, “Optical properties of rare-earth films in paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases,” J. Phys. F 5, 774–789 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. D. Padalia, S. N. Gupta, V. P. Vijayavargiya, and B. C. Tripathi, “X ray spectroscopic study of 4 f heavy rare earth metals,” J. Phys. F 4, 938–946 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

P. Trebbia and C. Colliex, “Study of the excitation of 4 d electrons in rare-earth metals by inelastic scattering of a high energy electrón beam,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 58, 523–532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Gribovskii and T. M. Zimkina, “Absorption coefficients of rare earth elements of the lanthanum group in the ultrasoft X-ray region,” Opt. Spectrosc. 35, 104–105 (1973).

1972 (3)

C. Bonnelle, R. C. Karnatak, and C. K. Jørgensen, “X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy for the determination of 4 f energies of rare earths,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 14, 145–149 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar, “Potential-barrier effects in photoabsorption. II Interpretation of photoabsorption resonances in lanthanide metals at the 4d-electron threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 1785–1792 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. Brodén, “UV-photoemission measurements on erbium and samarium,” Phys. Kondens. Mater. 15, 171–190 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. A. Bakulin, L. A. Balabanova, E. V. Stepin, and V. V. Shcherbinina, “Characteristics energy losses of electrons in the rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 13, 189–191(1971).

1967 (3)

D. W. Fischer and W. L. Baun, “Self-absorption effects in the soft x-ray Mα and Mβ emission spectra of the rare earth elements,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4830–4836 (1967).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Zimkina, V. A. Fomichev, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Anomalies in the character of the x-ray absorption of rare-earth elements of the lanthanide group,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1128–1130 (1967).

V. A. Fomichev, T. M. Zimkina, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Discrete absorption by 4 d electrons in the lanthanum group rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1163–1165 (1967).

Aquila, A. L.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50–1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Artioukov, I.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aznárez, J. A.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of Sc films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, and José Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of Yb films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Bajoni, D.

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Bakulin, E. A.

E. A. Bakulin, L. A. Balabanova, E. V. Stepin, and V. V. Shcherbinina, “Characteristics energy losses of electrons in the rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 13, 189–191(1971).

Balabanova, L. A.

E. A. Bakulin, L. A. Balabanova, E. V. Stepin, and V. V. Shcherbinina, “Characteristics energy losses of electrons in the rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 13, 189–191(1971).

Baun, W. L.

D. W. Fischer and W. L. Baun, “Self-absorption effects in the soft x-ray Mα and Mβ emission spectra of the rare earth elements,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4830–4836 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, J. A.

Bertel, E.

E. Bertel, F. P. Netzer, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Comparison of the electron energy loss spectrum of erbium metal with Er/O2 and Er/H2,” Surf. Sci. 103, 1–12 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50–1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolotin, G. A.

Y. V. Knyazev and G. A. Bolotin, “Anisotropy of optical absorption in erbium and thulium single crystals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 61, 57–63 (1986).

Bonnelle, C.

C. Bonnelle, R. C. Karnatak, and C. K. Jørgensen, “X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy for the determination of 4 f energies of rare earths,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 14, 145–149 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Borgatti, F.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Brewer, W. D.

J. Sugar, W. D. Brewer, G. Kalkowski, G. Kaindl, and E. Paparazzo, “Photoabsorption by the 3 d shell in Ce, Pr, Ho, and Er: Observations and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2242–2248(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kaindl, G. Kalkowski, W. D. Brewer, B. Perscheid, and F. Holtzberg, “M-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of 4finstabilities in rare-earth systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1910–1915 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brodén, G.

G. Brodén, “UV-photoemission measurements on erbium and samarium,” Phys. Kondens. Mater. 15, 171–190 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brookes, N. B.

J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calvo-Angós, José

Chang, J.

C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. R. Kishore, S. A. Kotochigova, and D. S. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast/html/form.html.

Chantler, C. T.

C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. R. Kishore, S. A. Kotochigova, and D. S. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast/html/form.html.

Colliex, C.

C. Colliex, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, “Analysis of the electron excitation spectra in heavy rare earth metals, hydrides and oxides,” J. Phys. 37, 397–406 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. Trebbia and C. Colliex, “Study of the excitation of 4 d electrons in rare-earth metals by inelastic scattering of a high energy electrón beam,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 58, 523–532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Covini, S.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

De Luisa, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, “The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds. (American Institute of Physics, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142–1145

de Vries, M. A.

J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, F.

F. Della Valle and S. Modesti, “Exchange-excited f−f transitions in the electron-energy-loss spectra of rare-earth metals,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 933–941 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dhesi, S. S.

J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, B. P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Dragoset, R. A.

C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. R. Kishore, S. A. Kotochigova, and D. S. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast/html/form.html.

Dzionk, Ch.

Ch. Dzionk, W. Fiedler, M. v. Lucke, and P. Zimmermann, “Photoion yield spectra of the lanthanides in the region of the 5p excitation: the elements Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3572–3574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eriksson, F.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50–1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Esteva, J.-M.

B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, and J. C. Fuggle, G. A. Sawatzky, R. C. Karnatak, and J.-M. Esteva, “3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3d94fn+1 multiplets of the lanthanides,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 5107–5118 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Perea, M.

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Fiedler, W.

Ch. Dzionk, W. Fiedler, M. v. Lucke, and P. Zimmermann, “Photoion yield spectra of the lanthanides in the region of the 5p excitation: the elements Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3572–3574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finetti, P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Fischer, D. W.

D. W. Fischer and W. L. Baun, “Self-absorption effects in the soft x-ray Mα and Mβ emission spectra of the rare earth elements,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4830–4836 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Fomichev, V. A.

V. A. Fomichev, T. M. Zimkina, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Discrete absorption by 4 d electrons in the lanthanum group rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1163–1165 (1967).

T. M. Zimkina, V. A. Fomichev, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Anomalies in the character of the x-ray absorption of rare-earth elements of the lanthanide group,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1128–1130 (1967).

Frassetto, F.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Fuggle, J. C.

B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, and J. C. Fuggle, G. A. Sawatzky, R. C. Karnatak, and J.-M. Esteva, “3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3d94fn+1 multiplets of the lanthanides,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 5107–5118 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection, E=100–2000 eV, Z=1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

García-Cortés, S.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garoli, D.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gasgnier, M.

C. Colliex, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, “Analysis of the electron excitation spectra in heavy rare earth metals, hydrides and oxides,” J. Phys. 37, 397–406 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gazzadi, G. C.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Giglia, A.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
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J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
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Kondratenko, V. V.

Kotochigova, S. A.

C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. R. Kishore, S. A. Kotochigova, and D. S. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast/html/form.html.

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M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
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M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of Sc films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, and José Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of Yb films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection, E=100–2000 eV, Z=1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
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Leiner, V.

H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
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J. H. Weaver and D. W. Lynch, “Anisotropic optical properties of heavy-rare-earth single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1324–1327 (1975).
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J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Physics data. Optical properties of metals,” (Fachinformationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik, 1981), Vol. 18-2.

Mahne, N.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Malvezzi, A. M.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of Sc films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Materlik, G.

G. Materlik, J. E. Müller, and J. W. Wilkins, “L-edge absorption spectra of the rare earths: assessment of the single-particle picture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 267–270 (1983).
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Méndez, J. A.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of Sc films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, and José Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of Yb films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Miguel, J.

J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
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G. Materlik, J. E. Müller, and J. W. Wilkins, “L-edge absorption spectra of the rare earths: assessment of the single-particle picture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 267–270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, G.

G. Naletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, “Monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 105–113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Nannarone, S.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Naletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, “Monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 105–113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, “Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444–3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, “The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds. (American Institute of Physics, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142–1145

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Netzer, F. P.

G. Strasser, G. Rosina, J. A. D. Matthew, and F. P. Netzer, “Core level excitations in the lanthanides by electron energy loss spectroscopy. I: 4 d and 3 d excitations,” J. Phys. F. Met. Phys. 15, 739–751 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Netzer, G. Strasser, G. Rosina, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Valence excitations of rare earths by electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 152/153, 757–764 (1985).
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C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. R. Kishore, S. A. Kotochigova, and D. S. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast/html/form.html.

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N. Öncan, L. Ward, and M. A. Player, “The optical properties of thin erbium films,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 361–364 (1994).
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H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
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Padalia, B. D.

B. D. Padalia, S. N. Gupta, V. P. Vijayavargiya, and B. C. Tripathi, “X ray spectroscopic study of 4 f heavy rare earth metals,” J. Phys. F 4, 938–946 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Paparazzo, E.

J. Sugar, W. D. Brewer, G. Kalkowski, G. Kaindl, and E. Paparazzo, “Photoabsorption by the 3 d shell in Ce, Pr, Ho, and Er: Observations and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2242–2248(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasquali, L.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, “The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds. (American Institute of Physics, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142–1145

Pedio, M.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Pelizzo, M. G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Pelizzo, M.-G.

G. Naletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, “Monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 105–113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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G. Kaindl, G. Kalkowski, W. D. Brewer, B. Perscheid, and F. Holtzberg, “M-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of 4finstabilities in rare-earth systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1910–1915 (1984).
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J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Player, M. A.

N. Öncan, L. Ward, and M. A. Player, “The optical properties of thin erbium films,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 361–364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23–1,700 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20–1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880–2887(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of Sc films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3271–3278 (2004).
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M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

Popov, N.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popov, N. L.

Rodríguez-de Marcos, L.

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosina, G.

G. Strasser, G. Rosina, J. A. D. Matthew, and F. P. Netzer, “Core level excitations in the lanthanides by electron energy loss spectroscopy. I: 4 d and 3 d excitations,” J. Phys. F. Met. Phys. 15, 739–751 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Netzer, G. Strasser, G. Rosina, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Valence excitations of rare earths by electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 152/153, 757–764 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sacchi, M.

F. C. Vicentin, S. Turchini, F. Yubero, J. Vogel, and M. Sacchi, “Absorption cross sections at the M4,5 edges of rare earths: a soft X-ray transmission experiment,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 74, 187–194 (1995).
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Salmassi, F.

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B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, and J. C. Fuggle, G. A. Sawatzky, R. C. Karnatak, and J.-M. Esteva, “3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3d94fn+1 multiplets of the lanthanides,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 5107–5118 (1985).
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Schierle, E.

H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
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Schüßler-Langeheine, C.

H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
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Seely, J.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Selvaggi, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Shcherbinina, V. V.

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E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612–1628 (1980).
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B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection, E=100–2000 eV, Z=1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
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Smith, D. Y.

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612–1628 (1980).
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Strasser, G.

G. Strasser, G. Rosina, J. A. D. Matthew, and F. P. Netzer, “Core level excitations in the lanthanides by electron energy loss spectroscopy. I: 4 d and 3 d excitations,” J. Phys. F. Met. Phys. 15, 739–751 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Netzer, G. Strasser, G. Rosina, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Valence excitations of rare earths by electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 152/153, 757–764 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sugar, J.

J. Sugar, W. D. Brewer, G. Kalkowski, G. Kaindl, and E. Paparazzo, “Photoabsorption by the 3 d shell in Ce, Pr, Ho, and Er: Observations and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2242–2248(1985).
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B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection, E=100–2000 eV, Z=1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
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B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, and J. C. Fuggle, G. A. Sawatzky, R. C. Karnatak, and J.-M. Esteva, “3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3d94fn+1 multiplets of the lanthanides,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 5107–5118 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

G. Naletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, “Monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 105–113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

Toulemonde, O. M.

J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
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F. C. Vicentin, S. Turchini, F. Yubero, J. Vogel, and M. Sacchi, “Absorption cross sections at the M4,5 edges of rare earths: a soft X-ray transmission experiment,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 74, 187–194 (1995).
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Uspenski, Yu.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
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B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, and J. C. Fuggle, G. A. Sawatzky, R. C. Karnatak, and J.-M. Esteva, “3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3d94fn+1 multiplets of the lanthanides,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 5107–5118 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Verucchi, R.

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, “Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444–3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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F. C. Vicentin, S. Turchini, F. Yubero, J. Vogel, and M. Sacchi, “Absorption cross sections at the M4,5 edges of rare earths: a soft X-ray transmission experiment,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 74, 187–194 (1995).
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M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

Vijayavargiya, V. P.

B. D. Padalia, S. N. Gupta, V. P. Vijayavargiya, and B. C. Tripathi, “X ray spectroscopic study of 4 f heavy rare earth metals,” J. Phys. F 4, 938–946 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

Vogel, J.

F. C. Vicentin, S. Turchini, F. Yubero, J. Vogel, and M. Sacchi, “Absorption cross sections at the M4,5 edges of rare earths: a soft X-ray transmission experiment,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 74, 187–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ward, L.

N. Öncan, L. Ward, and M. A. Player, “The optical properties of thin erbium films,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 361–364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Ward, “Optical constants of eight rare earth elements: Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solid III, E.D.Palik ed., Academic, 1998, p. 287.

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver and D. W. Lynch, “Anisotropic optical properties of heavy-rare-earth single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1324–1327 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Physics data. Optical properties of metals,” (Fachinformationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik, 1981), Vol. 18-2.

Weschke, E.

H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, J. W.

G. Materlik, J. E. Müller, and J. W. Wilkins, “L-edge absorption spectra of the rare earths: assessment of the single-particle picture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 267–270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

Yubero, F.

F. C. Vicentin, S. Turchini, F. Yubero, J. Vogel, and M. Sacchi, “Absorption cross sections at the M4,5 edges of rare earths: a soft X-ray transmission experiment,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 74, 187–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zabel, H.

H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhukova, I. I.

T. M. Zimkina, V. A. Fomichev, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Anomalies in the character of the x-ray absorption of rare-earth elements of the lanthanide group,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1128–1130 (1967).

V. A. Fomichev, T. M. Zimkina, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Discrete absorption by 4 d electrons in the lanthanum group rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1163–1165 (1967).

Zimkina, T. M.

S. A. Gribovskii and T. M. Zimkina, “Absorption coefficients of rare earth elements of the lanthanum group in the ultrasoft X-ray region,” Opt. Spectrosc. 35, 104–105 (1973).

V. A. Fomichev, T. M. Zimkina, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Discrete absorption by 4 d electrons in the lanthanum group rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1163–1165 (1967).

T. M. Zimkina, V. A. Fomichev, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Anomalies in the character of the x-ray absorption of rare-earth elements of the lanthanide group,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1128–1130 (1967).

Zimmermann, P.

Ch. Dzionk, W. Fiedler, M. v. Lucke, and P. Zimmermann, “Photoion yield spectra of the lanthanides in the region of the 5p excitation: the elements Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3572–3574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zucker, D. S.

C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. R. Kishore, S. A. Kotochigova, and D. S. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast/html/form.html.

Appl. Opt. (5)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (2)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection, E=100–2000 eV, Z=1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Bonnelle, R. C. Karnatak, and C. K. Jørgensen, “X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy for the determination of 4 f energies of rare earths,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 14, 145–149 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

G. Kaindl, G. Kalkowski, W. D. Brewer, B. Perscheid, and F. Holtzberg, “M-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of 4finstabilities in rare-earth systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1910–1915 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6–1,200 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4–1,600 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3–1,400 eV range,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75–1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Lu films in the 3–1800 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fischer and W. L. Baun, “Self-absorption effects in the soft x-ray Mα and Mβ emission spectra of the rare earth elements,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4830–4836 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena (1)

F. C. Vicentin, S. Turchini, F. Yubero, J. Vogel, and M. Sacchi, “Absorption cross sections at the M4,5 edges of rare earths: a soft X-ray transmission experiment,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 74, 187–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Phys. (1)

C. Colliex, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, “Analysis of the electron excitation spectra in heavy rare earth metals, hydrides and oxides,” J. Phys. 37, 397–406 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. F (2)

J. Krizek and K. N. R. Taylor, “Optical properties of rare-earth films in paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases,” J. Phys. F 5, 774–789 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Padalia, S. N. Gupta, V. P. Vijayavargiya, and B. C. Tripathi, “X ray spectroscopic study of 4 f heavy rare earth metals,” J. Phys. F 4, 938–946 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. F. Met. Phys. (1)

G. Strasser, G. Rosina, J. A. D. Matthew, and F. P. Netzer, “Core level excitations in the lanthanides by electron energy loss spectroscopy. I: 4 d and 3 d excitations,” J. Phys. F. Met. Phys. 15, 739–751 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

N. Öncan, L. Ward, and M. A. Player, “The optical properties of thin erbium films,” Opt. Laser Technol. 26, 361–364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

S. A. Gribovskii and T. M. Zimkina, “Absorption coefficients of rare earth elements of the lanthanum group in the ultrasoft X-ray region,” Opt. Spectrosc. 35, 104–105 (1973).

Phys. Kondens. Mater. (1)

G. Brodén, “UV-photoemission measurements on erbium and samarium,” Phys. Kondens. Mater. 15, 171–190 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Met. Metallogr. (1)

Y. V. Knyazev and G. A. Bolotin, “Anisotropy of optical absorption in erbium and thulium single crystals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 61, 57–63 (1986).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Sugar, W. D. Brewer, G. Kalkowski, G. Kaindl, and E. Paparazzo, “Photoabsorption by the 3 d shell in Ce, Pr, Ho, and Er: Observations and calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2242–2248(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Dzionk, W. Fiedler, M. v. Lucke, and P. Zimmermann, “Photoion yield spectra of the lanthanides in the region of the 5p excitation: the elements Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3572–3574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612–1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Ott, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, E. Schierle, A. Y. Grigoriev, V. Leiner, H. Zabel, G. Kaindl, and E. Weschke, “Magnetic x-ray scattering at the M5 absorption edge of Ho,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 094412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Peters, J. Miguel, M. A. de Vries, O. M. Toulemonde, J. B. Goedkoop, S. S. Dhesi, and N. B. Brookes, “Soft x-ray resonant magneto-optical constants at the Gd M4,5 and Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 224417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Jiles and M. P. Staines, “Optical properties of the heavy rare-earth metals: piezoreflectance of gadolinium, dysprosium, and erbium,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 5746–5755 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Della Valle and S. Modesti, “Exchange-excited f−f transitions in the electron-energy-loss spectra of rare-earth metals,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 933–941 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, and J. C. Fuggle, G. A. Sawatzky, R. C. Karnatak, and J.-M. Esteva, “3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3d94fn+1 multiplets of the lanthanides,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 5107–5118 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar, “Potential-barrier effects in photoabsorption. II Interpretation of photoabsorption resonances in lanthanide metals at the 4d-electron threshold,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 1785–1792 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Materlik, J. E. Müller, and J. W. Wilkins, “L-edge absorption spectra of the rare earths: assessment of the single-particle picture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 267–270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Weaver and D. W. Lynch, “Anisotropic optical properties of heavy-rare-earth single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1324–1327 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. B (1)

P. Trebbia and C. Colliex, “Study of the excitation of 4 d electrons in rare-earth metals by inelastic scattering of a high energy electrón beam,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 58, 523–532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. A (1)

D. H. Tracy, “Photoabsorption structure in lanthanides: 5 p subshell spectra of Sm I, Eu I, Dy I, Ho I, Er I, Tm I, and Yb I,” Proc. R. Soc. A 357, 485–498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of neodymium and gadolinium in the 3 nm to 100 nm wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170U (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50–1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Naletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, “Monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 105–113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, “Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444–3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

Y. V. Knyazev and M. N. Noskov, “Optical absorption of erbium in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states,” Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 4, 184–186 (1978).

Sov. Phys. Solid State (3)

E. A. Bakulin, L. A. Balabanova, E. V. Stepin, and V. V. Shcherbinina, “Characteristics energy losses of electrons in the rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 13, 189–191(1971).

T. M. Zimkina, V. A. Fomichev, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Anomalies in the character of the x-ray absorption of rare-earth elements of the lanthanide group,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1128–1130 (1967).

V. A. Fomichev, T. M. Zimkina, S. A. Gribovskii, and I. I. Zhukova, “Discrete absorption by 4 d electrons in the lanthanum group rare-earth metals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 1163–1165 (1967).

Surf. Sci. (2)

E. Bertel, F. P. Netzer, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Comparison of the electron energy loss spectrum of erbium metal with Er/O2 and Er/H2,” Surf. Sci. 103, 1–12 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Netzer, G. Strasser, G. Rosina, and J. A. D. Matthew, “Valence excitations of rare earths by electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 152/153, 757–764 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

L. Ward, “Optical constants of eight rare earth elements: Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solid III, E.D.Palik ed., Academic, 1998, p. 287.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., (American Institute of Physics, 2004),Vol. 705, pp. 450–453.

URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, “The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds. (American Institute of Physics, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142–1145

The data are available on request at the following e-mail address: larruquert@io.cfmac.csic.es

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Ho films in the 3–1340 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys., 138104JAP (to be published).

C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset, J. Chang, A. R. Kishore, S. A. Kotochigova, and D. S. Zucker, “X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables,” http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast/html/form.html.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Physics data. Optical properties of metals,” (Fachinformationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik, 1981), Vol. 18-2.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of Er films with various thicknesses (in nm) normalized to the transmittance of the substrate versus the logarithm of photon energy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log-log plot of k as a function of photon energy, along with data of Gribovskii and Zimkina [16], Knyazev and Noskov [29], and Henke [50].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

k as a function of photon energy at the low-energy range, along with the data from Knyazev and Noskov [29]and Henke [50].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

k versus photon energy at the N 4 , 5 edge, along with data from Gribovskii and Zimkina [16], Fomichev et al. [19], and Henke [50]. The data from the Fomichev article have been normalized to match the Gribovskii data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

k versus photon energy at the M 4 , 5 edge, along with the data from Vicentin et al. [17], Thole et al. [22] (after rescaling data), and Henke [50].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Log-log plot of the k data that maps a wide spectral range using the current data along with the data from Knyazev and Noskov [29], Henke [50], and Chantler et al. [57], and extrapolations in the two extremes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Log-log plot of δ = 1 n versus photon energy. The data from Henke [50] are also represented.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

n versus photon energy at the low-energy range. The data from Knyazev and Noskov [29], and Henke [50] are also represented.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

δ = 1 n versus photon energy at the N 4 , 5 edge. The Henke data [50] are also represented.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

δ = 1 n versus photon energy at the M 4 , 5 edge. The Henke data [50] are also represented.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ln ( T f s T s ) A ( 4 π k λ ) · d ,
n ( E ) 1 = 2 π P 0 E k ( E ) E k ( E ) E 2 E 2 d E ,
n eff ( E ) = 4 ε 0 m π N at e 2 h 2 0 E E k ( E ) d E ,
0 [ n ( E ) 1 ] d E = 0 ,
ζ = 0 [ n ( E ) 1 ] d E 0 | n ( E ) 1 | d E .

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