Abstract

A biological detection scheme based on the natural foraging behavior of conditioned honeybees for detecting chemical vapor plumes associated with unexploded ordnance devices utilizes a scanning lidar instrument to provide spatial mapping of honeybee densities. The scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) instrument uses a frequency doubled Nd:YAG microchip laser to send out a series of pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 6.853kHz. The scattered light is monitored to produce a discrete time series for each range. This discrete time series is then processed using an efficient algorithm that is able to isolate and identify the return signal from a honeybee in a cluttered environment, producing spatially mapped honeybee densities. Two field experiments were performed with the scanning lidar instrument that demonstrate good correlation between the honeybee density maps and the target locations.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.
  2. J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, “Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs,” in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532–543 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, “Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres,” in Honeybees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.Devillars and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 12–41.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Land Mine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J.MacDonald, J.R.Lockwood, J.McFee, T.Altshuler, T.Broach, L.Carin, C.Rappaport, W.R.Scott, and R.Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.
  5. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.
  6. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).
  7. J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, “Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating land mines,” Opt. Express 13, 5853–5863 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. S. Hoffman, A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, “Range-resolved optical detection of honeybees by use of wing-beat modulation of scattered light for locating land mines,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3007–3012 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, R. Scheppele, C. Melton, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Optical detection of honeybees by use of wing-beat modulation of scattered laser light for locating explosives and land mines,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1839–1843 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514–581.
  11. S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, “Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs,” in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532–543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Ake, R.

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Alnasseer, G. H.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, “Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres,” in Honeybees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.Devillars and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 12–41.
[CrossRef]

Altshuler, T.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Balch, T.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Barnett, J. L.

J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, “Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs,” in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532–543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Bender, S. F.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Broach, T.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Bromenshenck, J. J.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, “Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres,” in Honeybees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.Devillars and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 12–41.
[CrossRef]

Bromenshenk, J. J.

J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, “Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating land mines,” Opt. Express 13, 5853–5863 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Land Mine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J.MacDonald, J.R.Lockwood, J.McFee, T.Altshuler, T.Broach, L.Carin, C.Rappaport, W.R.Scott, and R.Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Carin, L.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Carlsten, J. L.

Churnside, J. H.

Corbet, S. A.

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Dunkle, D. L.

Etter, R. T.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Fraser, A.

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Fussell, M.

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, C.

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Hendersen, C. B.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Land Mine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J.MacDonald, J.R.Lockwood, J.McFee, T.Altshuler, T.Broach, L.Carin, C.Rappaport, W.R.Scott, and R.Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

Henderson, C. B.

J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, “Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating land mines,” Opt. Express 13, 5853–5863 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Hoffman, D. S.

Jones, D. C.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, “Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres,” in Honeybees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.Devillars and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 12–41.
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, J. R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

MacDonald, J.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

McFee, J.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Melton, C.

Nawab, S. H.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514–581.

Nehrir, A. R.

Nugent, P. W.

Oppenheim, A. V.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514–581.

Phelan, J. M.

J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, “Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs,” in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532–543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, C.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Repasky, K. S.

Rodacy, P.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Rodacy, P. J.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Savage, A.

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Scheppele, R.

Scott, W.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Seccomb, R. A.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Seldomridge, N.

Seldomridge, N. L.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Shaw, J. A.

Shaw, J. H.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Smith, G. C.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, “Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres,” in Honeybees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.Devillars and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 12–41.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Land Mine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J.MacDonald, J.R.Lockwood, J.McFee, T.Altshuler, T.Broach, L.Carin, C.Rappaport, W.R.Scott, and R.Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

Smith, K.

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Spangler, L.

Spangler, L. H.

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, R. Scheppele, C. Melton, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Optical detection of honeybees by use of wing-beat modulation of scattered laser light for locating explosives and land mines,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1839–1843 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Succomb, R. A.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Weaver, R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Willsky, A. S.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514–581.

Wilson, J. J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Ecol. Entomol. (1)

S. A. Corbet, M. Fussell, R. Ake, A. Fraser, C. Gunson, A. Savage, and K. Smith, “Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees,” in Ecol. Entomol. 18, 17–30(1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, “Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs,” in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532–543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, “Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres,” in Honeybees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.Devillars and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 12–41.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Land Mine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J.MacDonald, J.R.Lockwood, J.McFee, T.Altshuler, T.Broach, L.Carin, C.Rappaport, W.R.Scott, and R.Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, “Can honeybees assist in area reduction and land mine detection?,” J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study_Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Land Mine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514–581.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the lidar instrument used to spatially map honeybee densities. Pulses from the microchip Nd:YAG laser are sent to the field using the scanning mirror. Returns from the field are collected using a telescope and fed to a PMT after passing through two NBFs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The upper plot shows the return signal as a function of the range bin number and laser pulse number for a single angle bin. The range on the y axis is found by multiplying the range bin number by the range resolution of 0.75 m , while the time on the x axis is found by multiplying the laser pulse number by 140 μs . The lower plot shows the return signal as a function of time for range bin 49.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Return as a function of the range bin and laser pulse number for the four signal classes. (a) Typical noise signal, (b) typical DC return signal, (c) typical modulated DC return, (d) typical return signal from a bee. As shown by the sidebars, each of these plots is scaled differently in order to illustrate the features of each class of signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A plot of the discrete return signal as a function of time for the four classes of return signal. (a), (b), (c), (d) time-dependent return signal for the noise, DC, modulated DC, and bee classes, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Discrete Fourier transforms for the signals observed in 4b (DC), 4c (modulated DC), 4d (average bee return), and the lower plot in Fig. 2 (strong bee return), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Plot of range bin versus laser pulse number, which represents the collected data for one angle bin. During the first data processing step, the data from each angle bin is compressed by averaging across laser pulse numbers. Each angle bin is then placed into the appropriate column in (b) range bin versus angle bin plot. Plot in (b) represents the average signal seen for one scan across the target field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A schematic of the experimental setup used for the Missoula, Montana, field experiment (target feeder location to scale, hives and external feeder locations approximate). The feeder footprint is 0.023 m × 0.023 m .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Screen capture of the GUI used to analyze the data collected by the scanning lidar instrument during the Missoula, Montana, experiment. Top left, range bin returns averaged (step 1); top right, lower thresholding performed (step 2); bottom left, upper thresholding performed (step 3); bottom right, Fourier transforms taken and filtered (step 4).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the experimental setup used for the St. George, Utah, field experiment (target locations to scale, hives and feeder locations approximate). The feeder footprint is 0.023 m × 0.023 m , and the DNT target footprint is 0.010 m × 0.010 m .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Screen capture of the GUI used to analyze the data collected by the scanning lidar instrument during the St. George, Utah, experiment. Top left, range bin returns averaged (step 1); top right, lower thresholding performed (step 2); bottom left, upper thresholding performed (step 3); bottom right, Fourier transforms taken and filtered (step 4). The four targets are marked by the gray circles in the lower right-hand plot.

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