Abstract

Light absorption by particulate impurities in snow and ice can affect the surface albedo and is important for the climate. The absorption properties of these particles can be determined by collecting and melting snow samples and extracting the particulate material by filtration of the meltwater. This paper describes the optical design and testing of a new instrument to measure the absorption spectrum from 400 to 750nm wavelength of the particles collected on filters using an “integrating-sandwich” configuration. The measured absorption is shown to be unaffected by scattering of light from the deposited particulates. A set of calibration standards is used to derive an upper limit for the concentration of black carbon (BC) in the snow. The wavelength dependence of the absorption spectra from 450 to 600nm is used to calculate an absorption Ångstrom exponent for the aerosol. This exponent is used to estimate the actual BC concentration in the snow samples as well as the relative contributions of BC and non-BC constituents to the absorption of solar radiation integrated over the wavelength band 300 to 750nm.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, J. M. Livington, J. Redemann, O. Dubovik, and A. Strawa, “Absorption Angstrom exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 1155–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hegg, S. G. Warren, T. C. Grenfell, S. J. Doherty, and A. D. Clarke, “Sources of light-absorbing aerosol in arctic snow and their seasonal variation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 10923–10938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, E. J. Dunlea, G. C. Roberts, J. M. Tomlinson, D. R. Collins, S. G. Howell, V. N. Kapustin, C. S. McNaughton, and J. Zhou, “Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6727–6742(2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, T. C. Grenfell, B. Light, B. C. Elder, J. Harbeck, C. Polashenski, W. B. Tucker III, and C. Stelmach, “Transpolar observations of the morphological properties of Arctic sea ice,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, C00A04 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Forsström, J. Ström, C. A. Pedersen, E. Isaksson, and S. Gerland, “Elemental carbon distribution in Svalbard snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

P. Boparai, J. Lee, and T. C. Bond, “Revisiting thermal-optical analyses of carbonaceous aerosol using a physical model,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 42, 930–948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell and D. K. Perovich, “Incident spectral irradiance in the Arctic Basin during the summer and fall,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D12117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Hadley, C. E. Corrigan, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Modified thermal-optical analysis using spectral absorption selectivity to distinguish black carbon from pyrolized organic carbon,” Environ. Sci. Tech. 42, 8459–8464 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

A. D. Clarke, C. McNaughton, V. Kapustin, Y. Shinozuka, S. Howell, J. Dibb, J. Zhou, B. Anderson, V. Brekhovskikh, H. Turner, and M. Pinkerton, “Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and humidification response,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D12S18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, L. Biedermann, and T. C. Bond, “Color of brown carbon: a model for ultraviolet and visible light absorption by organic carbon aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L17813(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, P. B. Russell, J. Redemann, T. C. Bond, P. K. Quinn, and B. Sierau, “Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5937–5943 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, J. T. Randerson, and P. J. Rasch, “Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D11202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McConnell, R. Edwards, G. L. Kok, M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, E. S. Saltzman, J. R. Banta, D. R. Pasteris, M. M. Carter, and J. D. W. Kahl, “20th century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing,” Science 317, 1381–1384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. W. Hagler, M. H. Bergin, E. A. Smith, and J. E. Dibb, “A summer time series of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D21309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencsér, “Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 3131–3148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. C. Bond, D. G. Streets, K. F. Yarber, S. M. Nelson, J. H. Woo, and Z. Klimont, “A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansen and L. Nazarenko, “Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 423–428(2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. V. Hobbs, “Evidence that the spectral dependence of light absorption by aerosols is affected by organic carbon,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. C. Grenfell, B. Light, and M. Sturm, “Spatial distribution and radiative effects of soot in the snow and sea ice during the SHEBA experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8032–8038(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. C. Bond, “Spectral dependence of visible light absorption by carbonaceous particles emitted from coal combustion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4075–4078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, “Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582–600(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Ricchiazzi, S. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, and D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmosph. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. D. Clarke and K. J. Noone, “Soot in the Arctic snowpack: a cause for perturbations in radiative transfer,” Atmos. Environ. 19, 2045–2053 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1981 (1)

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, and J. A. Ogren, “Spectral albedos of an alpine snowpack,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 4, 121–127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. G. Warren and W. J. Wiscombe, “A model for the spectral albedo of snow. II. snow containing atmospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2734–2745 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, and B. H. Stockton, “Complex index of refraction between 300 and 700 nm for Saharan aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3153–3160 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

A. A. Gershun, “Presentation of the fundamental ideas of the theory of a radiation field (vector methods of photometric calculation),” Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR , N 3, 417–430 (1936) [in Russian, Proc. Acad. Sciences USSR].

Ahern, A.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aleinov, I.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

A. D. Clarke, C. McNaughton, V. Kapustin, Y. Shinozuka, S. Howell, J. Dibb, J. Zhou, B. Anderson, V. Brekhovskikh, H. Turner, and M. Pinkerton, “Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and humidification response,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D12S18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, “Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582–600(1999).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencsér, “Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 3131–3148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnott, W. P.

J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Banta, J. R.

J. R. McConnell, R. Edwards, G. L. Kok, M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, E. S. Saltzman, J. R. Banta, D. R. Pasteris, M. M. Carter, and J. D. W. Kahl, “20th century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing,” Science 317, 1381–1384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, M.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bell, N.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergin, M. H.

G. S. W. Hagler, M. H. Bergin, E. A. Smith, and J. E. Dibb, “A summer time series of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D21309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, J. M. Livington, J. Redemann, O. Dubovik, and A. Strawa, “Absorption Angstrom exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 1155–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, P. B. Russell, J. Redemann, T. C. Bond, P. K. Quinn, and B. Sierau, “Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5937–5943 (2007).
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T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006).
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H. Sun, L. Biedermann, and T. C. Bond, “Color of brown carbon: a model for ultraviolet and visible light absorption by organic carbon aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L17813(2007).
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Bond, T. C.

P. Boparai, J. Lee, and T. C. Bond, “Revisiting thermal-optical analyses of carbonaceous aerosol using a physical model,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 42, 930–948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, L. Biedermann, and T. C. Bond, “Color of brown carbon: a model for ultraviolet and visible light absorption by organic carbon aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L17813(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, P. B. Russell, J. Redemann, T. C. Bond, P. K. Quinn, and B. Sierau, “Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5937–5943 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bond, D. G. Streets, K. F. Yarber, S. M. Nelson, J. H. Woo, and Z. Klimont, “A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14203 (2004).
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T. C. Bond, “Spectral dependence of visible light absorption by carbonaceous particles emitted from coal combustion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4075–4078 (2001).
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T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, “Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582–600(1999).
[CrossRef]

Boparai, P.

P. Boparai, J. Lee, and T. C. Bond, “Revisiting thermal-optical analyses of carbonaceous aerosol using a physical model,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 42, 930–948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brekhovskikh, V.

A. D. Clarke, C. McNaughton, V. Kapustin, Y. Shinozuka, S. Howell, J. Dibb, J. Zhou, B. Anderson, V. Brekhovskikh, H. Turner, and M. Pinkerton, “Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and humidification response,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D12S18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brem, B.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, D.

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, “Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582–600(1999).
[CrossRef]

Canagaratna, M. R.

J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Canuto, V.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cappa, C. D.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carter, M. M.

J. R. McConnell, R. Edwards, G. L. Kok, M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, E. S. Saltzman, J. R. Banta, D. R. Pasteris, M. M. Carter, and J. D. W. Kahl, “20th century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing,” Science 317, 1381–1384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakrabarty, R. K.

J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, M.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, 1960).

Cheng, Y.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A. D.

P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, J. M. Livington, J. Redemann, O. Dubovik, and A. Strawa, “Absorption Angstrom exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 1155–1169 (2010).
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D. A. Hegg, S. G. Warren, T. C. Grenfell, S. J. Doherty, and A. D. Clarke, “Sources of light-absorbing aerosol in arctic snow and their seasonal variation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 10923–10938 (2010).
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Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, E. J. Dunlea, G. C. Roberts, J. M. Tomlinson, D. R. Collins, S. G. Howell, V. N. Kapustin, C. S. McNaughton, and J. Zhou, “Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6727–6742(2009).
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A. D. Clarke, C. McNaughton, V. Kapustin, Y. Shinozuka, S. Howell, J. Dibb, J. Zhou, B. Anderson, V. Brekhovskikh, H. Turner, and M. Pinkerton, “Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and humidification response,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D12S18 (2007).
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A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, and D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmosph. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).
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A. D. Clarke and K. J. Noone, “Soot in the Arctic snowpack: a cause for perturbations in radiative transfer,” Atmos. Environ. 19, 2045–2053 (1985).
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A. D. Clarke, “Effects of filter internal reflection coefficient on light absorption measurements made using the integrating plate method,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3021–3031 (1982).
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A. D. Clarke, “Integrating sandwich: a new method of measurement of the light absorption coefficient for atmospheric particles,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3011–3020 (1982).
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Collins, D. R.

Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, E. J. Dunlea, G. C. Roberts, J. M. Tomlinson, D. R. Collins, S. G. Howell, V. N. Kapustin, C. S. McNaughton, and J. Zhou, “Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6727–6742(2009).
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Corrigan, C. E.

O. L. Hadley, C. E. Corrigan, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Modified thermal-optical analysis using spectral absorption selectivity to distinguish black carbon from pyrolized organic carbon,” Environ. Sci. Tech. 42, 8459–8464 (2008).
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Covert, D. S.

A. D. Clarke, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S. G. Warren, and D. S. Covert, “Aerosol light absorption measurement techniques: analysis and intercomparisons,” Atmosph. Environ. 21, 1455–1465 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cross, E. S.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davidovits, P.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DeCarlo, P. F.

P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, J. M. Livington, J. Redemann, O. Dubovik, and A. Strawa, “Absorption Angstrom exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 1155–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, E. J. Dunlea, G. C. Roberts, J. M. Tomlinson, D. R. Collins, S. G. Howell, V. N. Kapustin, C. S. McNaughton, and J. Zhou, “Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6727–6742(2009).
[CrossRef]

Dibb, J.

A. D. Clarke, C. McNaughton, V. Kapustin, Y. Shinozuka, S. Howell, J. Dibb, J. Zhou, B. Anderson, V. Brekhovskikh, H. Turner, and M. Pinkerton, “Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and humidification response,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D12S18 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dibb, J. E.

G. S. W. Hagler, M. H. Bergin, E. A. Smith, and J. E. Dibb, “A summer time series of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D21309 (2007).
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Doherty, S. J.

D. A. Hegg, S. G. Warren, T. C. Grenfell, S. J. Doherty, and A. D. Clarke, “Sources of light-absorbing aerosol in arctic snow and their seasonal variation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 10923–10938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubey, M.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, J. M. Livington, J. Redemann, O. Dubovik, and A. Strawa, “Absorption Angstrom exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 1155–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dunlea, E. J.

Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, E. J. Dunlea, G. C. Roberts, J. M. Tomlinson, D. R. Collins, S. G. Howell, V. N. Kapustin, C. S. McNaughton, and J. Zhou, “Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6727–6742(2009).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, R.

J. R. McConnell, R. Edwards, G. L. Kok, M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, E. S. Saltzman, J. R. Banta, D. R. Pasteris, M. M. Carter, and J. D. W. Kahl, “20th century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing,” Science 317, 1381–1384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elder, B. C.

D. K. Perovich, T. C. Grenfell, B. Light, B. C. Elder, J. Harbeck, C. Polashenski, W. B. Tucker III, and C. Stelmach, “Transpolar observations of the morphological properties of Arctic sea ice,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, C00A04 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, D. W.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faluvegi, G.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
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Flanner, M. G.

M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, J. T. Randerson, and P. J. Rasch, “Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D11202 (2007).
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J. R. McConnell, R. Edwards, G. L. Kok, M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, E. S. Saltzman, J. R. Banta, D. R. Pasteris, M. M. Carter, and J. D. W. Kahl, “20th century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing,” Science 317, 1381–1384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, E.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
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Forsström, S.

S. Forsström, J. Ström, C. A. Pedersen, E. Isaksson, and S. Gerland, “Elemental carbon distribution in Svalbard snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19112 (2009).
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Freedman, A.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, S.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friend, A.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
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J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, “Efficacy of climate forcings,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18104 (2005).
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E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
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E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
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E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
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J. R. McConnell, R. Edwards, G. L. Kok, M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, E. S. Saltzman, J. R. Banta, D. R. Pasteris, M. M. Carter, and J. D. W. Kahl, “20th century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing,” Science 317, 1381–1384 (2007).
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E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
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J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, J. T. Jayne, L. R. Williams, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, J. P. Schwartz, R.-S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, G. L. Kok, and A. Petzold, “An inter-comparison of instruments measuring black carbon content of soot particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 295–314 (2007).
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Sedlacek, A.

E. S. Cross, T. B. Onasch, A. Ahern, W. Wrobel, J. G. Slowik, J. Olfert, D. A. Lack, P. Massoli, C. D. Cappa, J. Schwartz, R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, A. Sedlacek, A. Trimborn, J. T. Jayne, A. Freedman, L. R. Williams, N. L. Ng, C. Mazzoleni, M. Dubey, B. Brem, G. Kok, R. Subramanian, S. Freitag, A. Clarke, D. Thornhill, L. Marr, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Worsnop, and P. Davidovits, “Soot particle studies—instrument inter-comparison—project overview,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44, 592–611 (2010).
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Aerosol Sci. Technol. (5)

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Appl. Opt. (2)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope photographs of the edge of the exposed zone on a Nuclepore filter showing significant visible differences between illumination with reflected and transmitted light. This motivates the integrating-sandwich technique, which removes the influence of scattering losses by material on the filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Schematic of ISSW spectrophotometer system optics. (B) Expanded view shows the configuration of the integrating sandwich with the compression weight raised to allow sample filter insertion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration curve for 600 nm wavelength relative to Monarch-71 standards. Individual points are the values from ISSW scans. The solid curve is a best-fit to the loading, L, using a third-order polynomial of the form L = A χ + B χ 3 . A = 8.689 and B = 1.862

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Uncertainty in filter loading. Standard deviation, σ χ , versus χ = ln ( S o / S ) at 600 nm for a series of 28 calibration runs on a set of reference filters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percent uncertainty in loading, 100 L L χ σ χ , for an ensemble of 28 calibration runs versus (A) filter loading at 600 nm and (B) wavelength for a loading of 2 μgC / cm 2 . The optimal spectral range is from 420 to 740 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical microscope image of filter sample from snow in northern Canada, May 2009, showing black soot conglomerates and red-brown dust particles. Smallest visible detail is 0.2 μm . Courtesy of Professor Don Brownlee (University of Washington, Department of Astronomy).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption optical depth versus wavelength for a sample filter containing BC and non-BC components from a snow sample from the Canadian Arctic in spring 2009. The solid line shows total absorption optical depth, and the dashed curve gives the maximum BC contribution assuming that all absorption at 650 700 nm is due to BC and that Å BC = 1.0 . The dotted curve gives the estimated BC absorption using Eqs. (9, 10) assuming Å NBC = 5 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Incident solar irradiance, F o ( λ ) , from the Arctic summer (2005) in the northern Beaufort Sea for a relatively clear day with some light clouds and fog [34]. The wavelength range is limited to the 300 750 nm band used for the absorption calculations. The spectrum has been extended from 350 to 300 nm using the SBDART model [35] using the subarctic summer atmospheric profile.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral absorption, F o ( λ ) τ ( λ ) , for a site in the Canadian Arctic in 2009 for all constituents (solid line), maximum BC (dashed line), and estimated BC (solid line) using the same Å val ues as for Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of equivalent concentration, C BC equiv determined by the ISSW spectrophotometer from Eqs. (14, 15), versus the values from visual estimates for samples of snow from the Russian Arctic in 2007, for which the non-BC levels were low. The upper and lower lines show the limits of a factor of 2 variation about the line of perfect agreement. Linear regression in ln-ln space, the dashed curve, gives ln [ C ( Visual ) ] = { 1.038 * ln [ C ( ISSW ) ] 0.2432 } with a correlation coefficient of 0.973 and a standard error of 0.300.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Symbols Used in Text

Equations (34)

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χ λ ln [ S 0 ( λ ) / S ( λ ) ] .
d F net d z = κ abs F s ,
S S 0 = exp ( 2 τ ) 1 R 1 R 2 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) ,
χ λ = 2 τ + ln [ 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) ] [ 1 R 1 R 2 ] .
C BC MAX = L BC MAX · ( A / M ) ,
E TOT = 300 750 F o ( λ ) τ TOT ( λ ) d λ 300 750 F o ( λ ) d λ , E BC MAX = 300 750 F o ( λ ) τ BC MAX ( λ ) d λ 300 750 F o ( λ ) d λ .
f BC MAX = E BC MAX / E tot , f NBC MIN = 1 f BC MAX .
Å tot ( λ 0 ) = ln [ τ tot ( λ 1 ) / τ tot ( λ 2 ) ] ln [ λ 2 / λ 1 ] ,
τ tot ( λ 0 ) · ( λ λ 0 ) Å tot = τ BC ( λ 0 ) · ( λ λ 0 ) Å BC + τ NBC ( λ 0 ) · ( λ λ 0 ) Å NBC ,
Å tot = Å BC r BC ( λ 0 ) + Å NBC ( 1 r BC ( λ 0 ) ) ,
τ BC est ( λ 0 ) = r BC ( λ 0 ) · τ tot ( λ 0 ) ,
τ BC est ( λ ) = τ BC est ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) Å BC = τ BC est ( λ 0 ) ( λ 0 / λ ) ,
L BC est = [ L BC MAX · τ BC est 650 700 / τ BC MAX 650 700 ] .
L BC equiv = L BC est 300 750 F o ( λ ) τ TOT ( λ ) d λ 300 750 F o ( λ ) τ BC est ( λ ) d λ = L BC est f BC est ,
C BC equiv = C BC est / f BC est .
F net = 0 2 π 0 1 μ I ( μ , ϕ ) d μ d ϕ + 0 2 π 1 0 μ I ( μ , ϕ ) d μ d ϕ ,
F s = 0 2 π 0 1 I ( μ , ϕ ) d μ d ϕ + 0 2 π 1 0 I ( μ , ϕ ) d μ d ϕ ,
F net = F + F ,
F s = 2 ( F + + F ) .
d ( F + F ) d τ = 2 ( F + + F ) ,
F + ( 1 ) = F 0 + R 1 · F ( 1 ) ,
F ( 2 ) = R 2 · F + ( 2 ) ,
F + ( 3 ) = ( 1 R 2 ) · F + ( 2 ) .
F l = g l · exp ( k l · τ ) ,
( k + g + + 2 g + ) exp ( k + τ ) + ( k g + 2 g ) exp ( k τ ) = 0.
k + = 2 , k = 2 ,
F + = g + exp ( 2 τ ) , F = g exp ( 2 τ ) .
g + = F 0 + R 1 g ,
g exp ( 2 τ ) = R 2 g + exp ( 2 τ ) .
g + = F 0 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) , g = R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) F 0 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) .
F + = F 0 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) exp ( 2 τ ) , F = R 2 exp ( 2 τ ) F 0 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) .
S = Ω d F + ( 3 ) = Ω d F 0 ( 1 R 2 ) 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) exp ( 2 τ ) .
S 0 = Ω d F 0 ( 1 R 2 ) 1 R 1 R 2 .
S S 0 = exp ( 2 τ ) 1 R 1 R 2 1 R 1 R 2 exp ( 4 τ ) .

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