Abstract

Aluminum nitride films were deposited by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of different nitrogen flow and working pressures at a sputtering power of 5kW on the refractive index, extinction coefficient, crystalline structure, residual stress, and surface roughness of aluminum nitride films was discussed. The aluminum nitride film would have high refractive index, low extinction coefficient and small residual stress at suitable nitrogen flow rate and low working pressure.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. N. Yoder, “Wide band gap semiconductor materials and devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 1633–1636 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. C. Zhang, “Recent progress in high-temperature solar selective coatings,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 63–74(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Q. Danh, K. H. Monz, and H. K. Pulker, “Reactive low voltage ion plating of aluminum nitride films and their characteristics,” Thin Solid Films 257, 116–124 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. N. Inkin, G. G. Kirpilenko, and A. J. Kolpakov, “Properties of aluminium nitride coating obtained by vacuum arc discharge method with plasma flow separation,” Diamond Rel. Mat. 10, 1314–1316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gross, G. Henn, and H. Schröder, “Growth of GaN and AlN thin films by laser induced molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50, 16–19 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Soh, S. S. Jang, I. S. Jeong, and W. J. Lee, “C-axis orientation of AlN films prepared by ECR PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 279, 17–22 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Yasui, S. Hoshino, and T. Akahane, “Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Si substrates by ECR plasma assisted MOCVD under controlled plasma conditions in afterglow region,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 462–467 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Dependence of N2 pressure on the crystal structure and surface quality of AlN thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2057–2062 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Mahmood, N. Rakov, and M. Xiao, “Influence of deposition conditions on optical properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Lett. 57, 1925–1933 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. P. Kar, A. S. Mukherjee, A. G. Bose, and A. S. Tuli, “Effect of inter-electrode spacing on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered AlN films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 261–265 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Bräuer, J. Szczyrbowski, and G. Teschner, “New approaches for reactive sputtering of dielectric materials on large scale substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 19–24(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. C. Seel, C. V. Thompson, S. J. Hearne, and J. A. Floro, “Tensile stress evolution during deposition of Volmer–Weber thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7079–7088 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2008

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Dependence of N2 pressure on the crystal structure and surface quality of AlN thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2057–2062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kar, A. S. Mukherjee, A. G. Bose, and A. S. Tuli, “Effect of inter-electrode spacing on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered AlN films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 261–265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Mahmood, N. Rakov, and M. Xiao, “Influence of deposition conditions on optical properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Lett. 57, 1925–1933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Inkin, G. G. Kirpilenko, and A. J. Kolpakov, “Properties of aluminium nitride coating obtained by vacuum arc discharge method with plasma flow separation,” Diamond Rel. Mat. 10, 1314–1316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. C. Seel, C. V. Thompson, S. J. Hearne, and J. A. Floro, “Tensile stress evolution during deposition of Volmer–Weber thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7079–7088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. C. Zhang, “Recent progress in high-temperature solar selective coatings,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 63–74(2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yasui, S. Hoshino, and T. Akahane, “Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Si substrates by ECR plasma assisted MOCVD under controlled plasma conditions in afterglow region,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Gross, G. Henn, and H. Schröder, “Growth of GaN and AlN thin films by laser induced molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50, 16–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bräuer, J. Szczyrbowski, and G. Teschner, “New approaches for reactive sputtering of dielectric materials on large scale substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 19–24(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. N. Yoder, “Wide band gap semiconductor materials and devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 1633–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Soh, S. S. Jang, I. S. Jeong, and W. J. Lee, “C-axis orientation of AlN films prepared by ECR PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 279, 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. Q. Danh, K. H. Monz, and H. K. Pulker, “Reactive low voltage ion plating of aluminum nitride films and their characteristics,” Thin Solid Films 257, 116–124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1909

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, T.

K. Yasui, S. Hoshino, and T. Akahane, “Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Si substrates by ECR plasma assisted MOCVD under controlled plasma conditions in afterglow region,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Baba, K.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bose, A. G.

J. P. Kar, A. S. Mukherjee, A. G. Bose, and A. S. Tuli, “Effect of inter-electrode spacing on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered AlN films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 261–265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. W.

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, G.

G. Bräuer, J. Szczyrbowski, and G. Teschner, “New approaches for reactive sputtering of dielectric materials on large scale substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 19–24(1997).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Campion, R. P.

C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, S. K.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S. K.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. L.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. S.

C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, W. Y.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G. C. B.

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

Craciun, F.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Danh, N. Q.

N. Q. Danh, K. H. Monz, and H. K. Pulker, “Reactive low voltage ion plating of aluminum nitride films and their characteristics,” Thin Solid Films 257, 116–124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dauscher, A.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. S.

C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Dinescu, M.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drese, R.

S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ettemberg, M.

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Floro, J. A.

S. C. Seel, C. V. Thompson, S. J. Hearne, and J. A. Floro, “Tensile stress evolution during deposition of Volmer–Weber thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7079–7088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foxon, C. T.

C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fuedenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Gartner, M.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, M.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, P.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

M. Gross, G. Henn, and H. Schröder, “Growth of GaN and AlN thin films by laser induced molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50, 16–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hatada, R.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hearne, S. J.

S. C. Seel, C. V. Thompson, S. J. Hearne, and J. A. Floro, “Tensile stress evolution during deposition of Volmer–Weber thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7079–7088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henn, G.

M. Gross, G. Henn, and H. Schröder, “Growth of GaN and AlN thin films by laser induced molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50, 16–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hopler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, S.

K. Yasui, S. Hoshino, and T. Akahane, “Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Si substrates by ECR plasma assisted MOCVD under controlled plasma conditions in afterglow region,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inkin, V. N.

V. N. Inkin, G. G. Kirpilenko, and A. J. Kolpakov, “Properties of aluminium nitride coating obtained by vacuum arc discharge method with plasma flow separation,” Diamond Rel. Mat. 10, 1314–1316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacquot, A.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. S.

J. W. Soh, S. S. Jang, I. S. Jeong, and W. J. Lee, “C-axis orientation of AlN films prepared by ECR PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 279, 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, I. S.

J. W. Soh, S. S. Jang, I. S. Jeong, and W. J. Lee, “C-axis orientation of AlN films prepared by ECR PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 279, 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ji, X. H.

X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kar, J. P.

J. P. Kar, A. S. Mukherjee, A. G. Bose, and A. S. Tuli, “Effect of inter-electrode spacing on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered AlN films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 261–265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P. J.

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

Khare, A.

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Dependence of N2 pressure on the crystal structure and surface quality of AlN thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2057–2062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirpilenko, G. G.

V. N. Inkin, G. G. Kirpilenko, and A. J. Kolpakov, “Properties of aluminium nitride coating obtained by vacuum arc discharge method with plasma flow separation,” Diamond Rel. Mat. 10, 1314–1316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koerfer, F.

S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kok, Y. N.

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolpakov, A. J.

V. N. Inkin, G. G. Kirpilenko, and A. J. Kolpakov, “Properties of aluminium nitride coating obtained by vacuum arc discharge method with plasma flow separation,” Diamond Rel. Mat. 10, 1314–1316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lal, K.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

J. W. Soh, S. S. Jang, I. S. Jeong, and W. J. Lee, “C-axis orientation of AlN films prepared by ECR PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 279, 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lei, Y. M.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lenoir, B.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, E. Z.

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, A.

A. Mahmood, N. Rakov, and M. Xiao, “Influence of deposition conditions on optical properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Lett. 57, 1925–1933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Meikap, A. K.

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monz, K. H.

N. Q. Danh, K. H. Monz, and H. K. Pulker, “Reactive low voltage ion plating of aluminum nitride films and their characteristics,” Thin Solid Films 257, 116–124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, A. S.

J. P. Kar, A. S. Mukherjee, A. G. Bose, and A. S. Tuli, “Effect of inter-electrode spacing on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered AlN films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 261–265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, S. V.

C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J. I.

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

N. Q. Danh, K. H. Monz, and H. K. Pulker, “Reactive low voltage ion plating of aluminum nitride films and their characteristics,” Thin Solid Films 257, 116–124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rakov, N.

A. Mahmood, N. Rakov, and M. Xiao, “Influence of deposition conditions on optical properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Lett. 57, 1925–1933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ren, C. X.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, H.

M. Gross, G. Henn, and H. Schröder, “Growth of GaN and AlN thin films by laser induced molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50, 16–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seel, S. C.

S. C. Seel, C. V. Thompson, S. J. Hearne, and J. A. Floro, “Tensile stress evolution during deposition of Volmer–Weber thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7079–7088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Severin, D.

S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. S.

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shukla, G.

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Dependence of N2 pressure on the crystal structure and surface quality of AlN thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2057–2062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soh, J. W.

J. W. Soh, S. S. Jang, I. S. Jeong, and W. J. Lee, “C-axis orientation of AlN films prepared by ECR PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 279, 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z. R.

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stofko, E. J.

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stölzer, M.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

Sundaravel, B.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swindells, I.

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

Szczyrbowski, J.

G. Bräuer, J. Szczyrbowski, and G. Teschner, “New approaches for reactive sputtering of dielectric materials on large scale substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 19–24(1997).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teschner, G.

G. Bräuer, J. Szczyrbowski, and G. Teschner, “New approaches for reactive sputtering of dielectric materials on large scale substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 19–24(1997).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. V.

S. C. Seel, C. V. Thompson, S. J. Hearne, and J. A. Floro, “Tensile stress evolution during deposition of Volmer–Weber thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7079–7088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tuli, A. S.

J. P. Kar, A. S. Mukherjee, A. G. Bose, and A. S. Tuli, “Effect of inter-electrode spacing on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered AlN films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 261–265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraj, S.

S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verardi, P.

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

West, G.

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, I. H.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. P.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, M.

S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

A. Mahmood, N. Rakov, and M. Xiao, “Influence of deposition conditions on optical properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Lett. 57, 1925–1933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. B.

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, K.

K. Yasui, S. Hoshino, and T. Akahane, “Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Si substrates by ECR plasma assisted MOCVD under controlled plasma conditions in afterglow region,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yim, W. M.

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, M. N.

M. N. Yoder, “Wide band gap semiconductor materials and devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 1633–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G. Q.

X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. H.

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zanzucchi, P. J.

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. C.

Q. C. Zhang, “Recent progress in high-temperature solar selective coatings,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 63–74(2000).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. H.

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W. H.

X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S. C.

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

K. Yasui, S. Hoshino, and T. Akahane, “Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Si substrates by ECR plasma assisted MOCVD under controlled plasma conditions in afterglow region,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Jacquot, B. Lenoir, A. Dauscher, P. Verardi, F. Craciun, M. Stölzer, M. Gartner, and M. Dinescu, “Optical and thermal characterization of AlN thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 507–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Dependence of N2 pressure on the crystal structure and surface quality of AlN thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2057–2062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Rel. Mat.

V. N. Inkin, G. G. Kirpilenko, and A. J. Kolpakov, “Properties of aluminium nitride coating obtained by vacuum arc discharge method with plasma flow separation,” Diamond Rel. Mat. 10, 1314–1316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

M. N. Yoder, “Wide band gap semiconductor materials and devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 1633–1636 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Fuedenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5090–5096(1997).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, M. Ettemberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Seel, C. V. Thompson, S. J. Hearne, and J. A. Floro, “Tensile stress evolution during deposition of Volmer–Weber thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7079–7088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

C. S. Davis, S. V. Novikov, T. S. Cheng, R. P. Campion, and C. T. Foxon, “Surface reconstruction patterns of AlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 226, 203–208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.

J. P. Kar, A. S. Mukherjee, A. G. Bose, and A. S. Tuli, “Effect of inter-electrode spacing on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered AlN films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 261–265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

G. Bräuer, J. Szczyrbowski, and G. Teschner, “New approaches for reactive sputtering of dielectric materials on large scale substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 19–24(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

X. H. Ji, S. P. Lau, G. Q. Yu, W. H. Zhong, and B. K. Tay, “Structure properties and nanoindentation of AlN films by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at low temperature,” J. Phys. D 37, 1472–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett.

A. Mahmood, N. Rakov, and M. Xiao, “Influence of deposition conditions on optical properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Lett. 57, 1925–1933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Song, Y. H. Yu, D. S. Shen, S. C. Zou, Z. H. Zheng, E. Z. Luo, and Z. Xie, “Dielectric properties of AlN thin films formed by ion beam enhanced deposition,” Mater. Lett. 57, 4643–4647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

M. Gross, G. Henn, and H. Schröder, “Growth of GaN and AlN thin films by laser induced molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50, 16–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

L. L. Cheng, Y. H. Yu, B. Sundaravel, E. Z. Luo, S. Lin, Y. M. Lei, C. X. Ren, W. Y. Cheung, S. P. Wong, J. B. Xu, and I. H. Wilson, “Compositional and morphological study of reactive ion beam deposited AlN thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 169, 94–97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. A

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

Q. C. Zhang, “Recent progress in high-temperature solar selective coatings,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 63–74(2000).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol.

P. J. Kelly, G. West, Y. N. Kok, J. W. Bradley, I. Swindells, and G. C. B. Clarke, “A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 952–956(2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

K. Lal, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, P. Ghosh, M. Ghosh, K. Baba, and R. Hatada, “Frequency dependent conductivity if aluminum nitride films prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 434, 264–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Q. Danh, K. H. Monz, and H. K. Pulker, “Reactive low voltage ion plating of aluminum nitride films and their characteristics,” Thin Solid Films 257, 116–124 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Soh, S. S. Jang, I. S. Jeong, and W. J. Lee, “C-axis orientation of AlN films prepared by ECR PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 279, 17–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, D. Severin, R. Drese, F. Koerfer, and M. Wuttig, “Structure, optical and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 502, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of discharge voltage and current as a function of N 2 flow rate with working pressures of (a)  1.333 × 10 1 Pa and (b)  2.666 × 10 1 Pa .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Deposition rate versus N 2 flow rate for different working pressures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index versus wavelength for different N 2 flow rates and working pressures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extinction coefficient versus wavelength for different N 2 flow rates and working pressures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-ray intensity distribution versus N 2 flow rate of AlN x films with working pressures of 1.333 × 10 1 Pa and 2.666 × 10 1 Pa .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Residual stress versus N 2 flow rate for different working pressures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Surface roughness versus N 2 flow rate for different working pressures.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Film Thickness, Deposition Rate, Refractive Index, Extinction Coefficient, Residual Stress, and Surface Roughness of AlN x Films under Different Working Pressure and N 2 Flow Rate

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ f = E S t S 2 6 ( 1 ν S ) t f R ,

Metrics