Abstract

Based on direct photonic generation of a beat signal, a simple hybrid wire–wireless fiber laser sensor is proposed. In the sensor, an improved multilongitudinal modes fiber laser cavity is set up by only a fiber Bragg grating, a section of erbium-doped fiber, and a broadband reflector. A photodetector is used to detect the electrical beat signal. Next, the beat signal including the sensor information can access the wireless network through the wireless transmission. At last, a frequency spectrum analyzer is used to demodulate the sensing information. With this method, the long-distance real-time monitor of the fiber sensor can be realized. The proposed technique offers a simple and cheap way for sensing information of the fiber sensor to access the wireless sensor network. An experiment was implemented to measure the strain and the corresponding root mean square deviation is about 5.7με at 916MHz and 3.8με at 1713MHz after wireless transmission.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Messer, A. Zinevich, and P. Alpert, “Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks,” Science 312, 713 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4628–4641 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. “Big contracts, more funding, and market predictions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 156 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. C. Liu, Z. Y. Yin, L. Gao, L. Zhang, X. F. Chen, and J. C. Cheng, “Multi-longitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35, 835–837 (2010).
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2010 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. X. Liu, A. Lacher, G. Wang, A. Purekar, and M. Yu, “Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Messer, A. Zinevich, and P. Alpert, “Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks,” Science 312, 713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4628–4641 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Kuorilehto, M. Hannikainen, and T. D. Hamalainen, “A survey of application distribution in wireless sensor networks,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 2005, 774–788(2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, “Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. A. Davis and A. D. Kersey, “All-fibre Bragg grating strain-sensor demodulation technique using a wavelength division coupler,” Electron. Lett. 30, 75–77 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alpert, P.

H. Messer, A. Zinevich, and P. Alpert, “Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks,” Science 312, 713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J.

A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, “Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring,” in Proceedings of First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, C.S.Raghavendra, ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 88–97.
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

Cayirci, E.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Cheng, J. C.

Culler, D.

A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, “Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring,” in Proceedings of First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, C.S.Raghavendra, ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 88–97.
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, “Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

M. A. Davis and A. D. Kersey, “All-fibre Bragg grating strain-sensor demodulation technique using a wavelength division coupler,” Electron. Lett. 30, 75–77 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Diao, X. M.

X. B. Xu, C. X. Zhang, K. M. Hou, H. Ding, and X. M. Diao, “A new wireless fiber optic sensor for monitoring breath motion,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on New Technologies, Mobility, and Security (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

X. B. Xu, C. X. Zhang, K. M. Hou, H. Ding, and X. M. Diao, “A new wireless fiber optic sensor for monitoring breath motion,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on New Technologies, Mobility, and Security (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Ezbiri, A.

A. Ezbiri, A. Munoz, S. E. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “High resolution fibre Bragg grating sensor demodulation using a diffraction grating spectrometer and CCD detection,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Techniques for Smart Structures and Structural Monitoring, Digest 1997/033 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

Geiger, H.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, “Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hamalainen, T. D.

M. Kuorilehto, M. Hannikainen, and T. D. Hamalainen, “A survey of application distribution in wireless sensor networks,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 2005, 774–788(2005).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

A. Ezbiri, A. Munoz, S. E. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “High resolution fibre Bragg grating sensor demodulation using a diffraction grating spectrometer and CCD detection,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Techniques for Smart Structures and Structural Monitoring, Digest 1997/033 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Hannikainen, M.

M. Kuorilehto, M. Hannikainen, and T. D. Hamalainen, “A survey of application distribution in wireless sensor networks,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 2005, 774–788(2005).
[CrossRef]

Hou, K. M.

X. B. Xu, C. X. Zhang, K. M. Hou, H. Ding, and X. M. Diao, “A new wireless fiber optic sensor for monitoring breath motion,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on New Technologies, Mobility, and Security (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

A. Ezbiri, A. Munoz, S. E. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “High resolution fibre Bragg grating sensor demodulation using a diffraction grating spectrometer and CCD detection,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Techniques for Smart Structures and Structural Monitoring, Digest 1997/033 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

M. A. Davis and A. D. Kersey, “All-fibre Bragg grating strain-sensor demodulation technique using a wavelength division coupler,” Electron. Lett. 30, 75–77 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, “Fiber-optic Bragg grating strain sensor with drift-compensated high-resolution interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Opt. Lett. 18, 72–74 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuorilehto, M.

M. Kuorilehto, M. Hannikainen, and T. D. Hamalainen, “A survey of application distribution in wireless sensor networks,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 2005, 774–788(2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacher, A.

Y. X. Liu, A. Lacher, G. Wang, A. Purekar, and M. Yu, “Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y(2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. C.

Liu, Y. X.

Y. X. Liu, A. Lacher, G. Wang, A. Purekar, and M. Yu, “Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y(2007).
[CrossRef]

Mainwaring, A.

A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, “Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring,” in Proceedings of First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, C.S.Raghavendra, ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 88–97.
[CrossRef]

Messer, H.

H. Messer, A. Zinevich, and P. Alpert, “Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks,” Science 312, 713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morey, W. W.

Munoz, A.

A. Ezbiri, A. Munoz, S. E. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “High resolution fibre Bragg grating sensor demodulation using a diffraction grating spectrometer and CCD detection,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Techniques for Smart Structures and Structural Monitoring, Digest 1997/033 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Polastre, J.

A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, “Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring,” in Proceedings of First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, C.S.Raghavendra, ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 88–97.
[CrossRef]

Purekar, A.

Y. X. Liu, A. Lacher, G. Wang, A. Purekar, and M. Yu, “Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sankarasubramaniam, Y.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

Su, W.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Szewczyk, R.

A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, “Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring,” in Proceedings of First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, C.S.Raghavendra, ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 88–97.
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Y. X. Liu, A. Lacher, G. Wang, A. Purekar, and M. Yu, “Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y(2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. J.

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, “Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. B.

X. B. Xu, C. X. Zhang, K. M. Hou, H. Ding, and X. M. Diao, “A new wireless fiber optic sensor for monitoring breath motion,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on New Technologies, Mobility, and Security (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z. Y.

Yu, M.

Y. X. Liu, A. Lacher, G. Wang, A. Purekar, and M. Yu, “Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y(2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. X.

X. B. Xu, C. X. Zhang, K. M. Hou, H. Ding, and X. M. Diao, “A new wireless fiber optic sensor for monitoring breath motion,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on New Technologies, Mobility, and Security (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zinevich, A.

H. Messer, A. Zinevich, and P. Alpert, “Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks,” Science 312, 713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Netw. (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. A. Davis and A. D. Kersey, “All-fibre Bragg grating strain-sensor demodulation technique using a wavelength division coupler,” Electron. Lett. 30, 75–77 (1994).
[CrossRef]

EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. (1)

M. Kuorilehto, M. Hannikainen, and T. D. Hamalainen, “A survey of application distribution in wireless sensor networks,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 2005, 774–788(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, “Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4628–4641 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. X. Liu, A. Lacher, G. Wang, A. Purekar, and M. Yu, “Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y(2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Messer, A. Zinevich, and P. Alpert, “Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks,” Science 312, 713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

“Big contracts, more funding, and market predictions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 156 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Xu, C. X. Zhang, K. M. Hou, H. Ding, and X. M. Diao, “A new wireless fiber optic sensor for monitoring breath motion,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on New Technologies, Mobility, and Security (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, “Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring,” in Proceedings of First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, C.S.Raghavendra, ed. (Academic, 2002), pp. 88–97.
[CrossRef]

A. Ezbiri, A. Munoz, S. E. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “High resolution fibre Bragg grating sensor demodulation using a diffraction grating spectrometer and CCD detection,” in IEE Colloquium on Optical Techniques for Smart Structures and Structural Monitoring, Digest 1997/033 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the hybrid wireless–wire fiber sensor. EDF, erbium-doped fiber; 3 dB , 3 dB coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The laser characteristic under different pump powers. (a)  980 nm pump power VS laser power. (b) Spectra of the laser under different pump power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Part beat signals before and after wireless transmission. WT, wireless transmission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between beat frequencies and 980 nm pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency stability of the beat signal before and after wireless transmission.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Responses of the beat signals to the strain under different frequencies before and after wireless transmission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of a wire–wireless fiber sensor network.

Equations (2)

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Δ ν i , j = ( i j ) c 2 n L ( δ n n + δ L L ) = ν i , j ( δ n n + δ L L ) = ν i , j ( 1 P e ) ε ,
Δ ν i , j = ν i , j ( α + ξ ) Δ T ,

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