Abstract

This study demonstrates the surface alignment induced pinning effects on blue phases. The morphologies of blue-phase platelets in a nonaligned cell become less uniform, and the photonic bandgap shifted over 120nm during the cooling process. Comparing the different boundary conditions, the anchoring forces provide by homogeneous alignment can pin the blue-phase platelets, confine the photonic bandgap variation, and increase uniformity of the blue phase. This study also examines the pinning effect by the patternable photoalignment technique. Boundary anchoring forces have a significant effect on the morphology and photonic characteristics of the blue phase, making them applicable to practical applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” in Crystalline Liquid Functional Assemblies and Their Supramolecular Structures, D.M. P.Mingos and T.Kato, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 99–117.
  2. H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases at work,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 63–66 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. P. Crooker, “Blue phases,” in Chirality in Liquid Crystals, H.-S.Kitzerow and C.Bahr, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2001), Chap. 7, pp. 186–222.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1435–1437(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic bands in simple and body-centered-cubic cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067–2072 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic band gaps in body-centered-cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10914–10917 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-Y. Huang, J. J. Stott, and R. G. Petschek, “Routes to self-assembling stable photonic band-gap phases in emulsions of chiral nematics with isotropic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5603–5606 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsia, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagram show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841–2845 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) 50, 549–562 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsia, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases at work,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1435–1437(2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C.-Y. Huang, J. J. Stott, and R. G. Petschek, “Routes to self-assembling stable photonic band-gap phases in emulsions of chiral nematics with isotropic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5603–5606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic band gaps in body-centered-cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10914–10917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic bands in simple and body-centered-cubic cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) 50, 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagram show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841–2845 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battle, P. R.

J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.-Z.

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsia, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cladis, P. E.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagram show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841–2845 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collings, P. J.

J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crooker, P. P.

J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Crooker, “Blue phases,” in Chirality in Liquid Crystals, H.-S.Kitzerow and C.Bahr, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2001), Chap. 7, pp. 186–222.
[CrossRef]

Etchegoin, P.

P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1435–1437(2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, H.-R.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garel, T.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagram show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841–2845 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heppke, G.

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) 50, 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hornreich, R. M.

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic band gaps in body-centered-cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10914–10917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic bands in simple and body-centered-cubic cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, J. J. Stott, and R. G. Petschek, “Routes to self-assembling stable photonic band-gap phases in emulsions of chiral nematics with isotropic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5603–5606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hung, S.-Y.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H.-C.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jerome, B.

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) 50, 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” in Crystalline Liquid Functional Assemblies and Their Supramolecular Structures, D.M. P.Mingos and T.Kato, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 99–117.

Kitzerow, H.-S.

H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases at work,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) 50, 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-H.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsia, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-H.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. D.

J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petschek, R. G.

C.-Y. Huang, J. J. Stott, and R. G. Petschek, “Routes to self-assembling stable photonic band-gap phases in emulsions of chiral nematics with isotropic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5603–5606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pieranski, P.

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) 50, 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagram show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841–2845 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shtrikman, S.

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic band gaps in body-centered-cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10914–10917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic bands in simple and body-centered-cubic cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sommers, C.

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic band gaps in body-centered-cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10914–10917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic bands in simple and body-centered-cubic cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stott, J. J.

C.-Y. Huang, J. J. Stott, and R. G. Petschek, “Routes to self-assembling stable photonic band-gap phases in emulsions of chiral nematics with isotropic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5603–5606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsia, Y.-T.

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsia, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-T.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsia, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases at work,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) (1)

G. Heppke, B. Jerome, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of BPI and BPII for blue phase systems with negative dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (Les Ulis, Fr.) 50, 549–562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. D. Miller, P. R. Battle, P. J. Collings, D. K. Yang, and P. P. Crooker, “Temperature-concentration phase diagram for the blue phases of a highly chiral liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 3959–3960 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic band gaps in body-centered-cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10914–10917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1435–1437(2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hornreich, S. Shtrikman, and C. Sommers, “Photonic bands in simple and body-centered-cubic cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 2067–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagram show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2841–2845 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Huang, J. J. Stott, and R. G. Petschek, “Routes to self-assembling stable photonic band-gap phases in emulsions of chiral nematics with isotropic fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5603–5606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” in Crystalline Liquid Functional Assemblies and Their Supramolecular Structures, D.M. P.Mingos and T.Kato, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 99–117.

P. P. Crooker, “Blue phases,” in Chirality in Liquid Crystals, H.-S.Kitzerow and C.Bahr, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2001), Chap. 7, pp. 186–222.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Images under the R-POM, (b) Kossel diagram, and (c) reflection spectrum of BP in an untreated cell at different temperatures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Images under the R-POM, (b) Kossel diagram, and (c) reflection spectrum of BP platelets in the homogeneous cell at different temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations in reflected wavelength of the BP as a function of temperature with different concentrations of chiral dopants.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Images under the R-POM, (b) Kossel diagram, and (c) reflection spectrum of BP platelets with the photoalignment effect at different temperatures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of the photoaligned dye-doped BP LC.

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