Abstract

A new type of integrated optical magnetic field sensor is presented in this paper. The proposed sensor consists of a Mach–Zehnder waveguide interferometer and a doubly loaded loop antenna. Such a structure can successfully avoid detection of the undesired electric field signal. The size of the sensor is 35 mm×6 mm×1 mm. The measurements show that the frequency response is from 2 kHz to 9 GHz, the dynamic range is 98 dB, and the minimum detectable magnetic field is 51.8 μA/m at 1 GHz. Therefore, this sensing system can be used in electromagnetic compatibility measurements.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Orr, P. Niewczas, M. Stevenson, and J. Canning, “Compound phase-shifted fiber Bragg structures as intrinsic magnetic field sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2667–2673 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Whiteside and R. W. P. King, “The loop antenna as a probe,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 291–297 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Yokoshima, “Absolute measurements for small loop antennas for RF magnetic field standards,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 217–221 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Bulmer,  “Sensitive, highly linear lithium niobate interferometers for electromagnetic field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2368–2370 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Suzuki, T. Miyakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Characteristics of an optical magnetic field probe consisting of a loop antenna element doubly-loaded with LiNbO3,” in 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 88–91.
  7. M. Tkahashi, H. Ota, K. Ichi Arai, and R. Sato, “A study on magnetic near-field measurements above a patch antenna using an optical waveguide probe with a loop element,” in 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2004), pp. 186–190.
  8. T. Miyakawa, K. Nishikawa, and K. Nishida, “An optical-waveguide-type magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2 88, 18–27 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. De Leonardis, “Electromagnetic field photonic sensors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45–73 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Sun and F. Chen, “Integrated optical magnetic field sensor with a doubly-loaded loop antenna,” in Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 660–662.

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. De Leonardis, “Electromagnetic field photonic sensors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Miyakawa, K. Nishikawa, and K. Nishida, “An optical-waveguide-type magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2 88, 18–27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. H. Bulmer,  “Sensitive, highly linear lithium niobate interferometers for electromagnetic field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2368–2370 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

I. Yokoshima, “Absolute measurements for small loop antennas for RF magnetic field standards,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 217–221 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

H. Whiteside and R. W. P. King, “The loop antenna as a probe,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 291–297 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K. I.

E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Suzuki, T. Miyakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Characteristics of an optical magnetic field probe consisting of a loop antenna element doubly-loaded with LiNbO3,” in 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 88–91.

Arai, K. Ichi

M. Tkahashi, H. Ota, K. Ichi Arai, and R. Sato, “A study on magnetic near-field measurements above a patch antenna using an optical waveguide probe with a loop element,” in 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2004), pp. 186–190.

Arakawa, S.

E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bulmer, C. H.

C. H. Bulmer,  “Sensitive, highly linear lithium niobate interferometers for electromagnetic field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2368–2370 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Chen, F.

B. Sun and F. Chen, “Integrated optical magnetic field sensor with a doubly-loaded loop antenna,” in Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 660–662.

De Leonardis, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. De Leonardis, “Electromagnetic field photonic sensors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. De Leonardis, “Electromagnetic field photonic sensors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, R. W. P.

H. Whiteside and R. W. P. King, “The loop antenna as a probe,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 291–297 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, T.

T. Miyakawa, K. Nishikawa, and K. Nishida, “An optical-waveguide-type magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2 88, 18–27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Suzuki, T. Miyakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Characteristics of an optical magnetic field probe consisting of a loop antenna element doubly-loaded with LiNbO3,” in 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 88–91.

Niewczas, P.

Nishida, K.

T. Miyakawa, K. Nishikawa, and K. Nishida, “An optical-waveguide-type magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2 88, 18–27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, K.

T. Miyakawa, K. Nishikawa, and K. Nishida, “An optical-waveguide-type magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2 88, 18–27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orr, P.

Ota, H.

E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Suzuki, T. Miyakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Characteristics of an optical magnetic field probe consisting of a loop antenna element doubly-loaded with LiNbO3,” in 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 88–91.

M. Tkahashi, H. Ota, K. Ichi Arai, and R. Sato, “A study on magnetic near-field measurements above a patch antenna using an optical waveguide probe with a loop element,” in 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2004), pp. 186–190.

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. De Leonardis, “Electromagnetic field photonic sensors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sato, R.

E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Tkahashi, H. Ota, K. Ichi Arai, and R. Sato, “A study on magnetic near-field measurements above a patch antenna using an optical waveguide probe with a loop element,” in 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2004), pp. 186–190.

E. Suzuki, T. Miyakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Characteristics of an optical magnetic field probe consisting of a loop antenna element doubly-loaded with LiNbO3,” in 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 88–91.

Stevenson, M.

Sun, B.

B. Sun and F. Chen, “Integrated optical magnetic field sensor with a doubly-loaded loop antenna,” in Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 660–662.

Suzuki, E.

E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Suzuki, T. Miyakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Characteristics of an optical magnetic field probe consisting of a loop antenna element doubly-loaded with LiNbO3,” in 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 88–91.

Tkahashi, M.

M. Tkahashi, H. Ota, K. Ichi Arai, and R. Sato, “A study on magnetic near-field measurements above a patch antenna using an optical waveguide probe with a loop element,” in 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2004), pp. 186–190.

Whiteside, H.

H. Whiteside and R. W. P. King, “The loop antenna as a probe,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 291–297 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Yokoshima, I.

I. Yokoshima, “Absolute measurements for small loop antennas for RF magnetic field standards,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 217–221 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. H. Bulmer,  “Sensitive, highly linear lithium niobate interferometers for electromagnetic field sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2368–2370 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2 (1)

T. Miyakawa, K. Nishikawa, and K. Nishida, “An optical-waveguide-type magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2 88, 18–27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

H. Whiteside and R. W. P. King, “The loop antenna as a probe,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 291–297 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. (1)

E. Suzuki, S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Optical magnetic field probe with a loop antenna element doubly loaded with electrooptic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 46, 641–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

I. Yokoshima, “Absolute measurements for small loop antennas for RF magnetic field standards,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 217–221 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. De Leonardis, “Electromagnetic field photonic sensors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Sun and F. Chen, “Integrated optical magnetic field sensor with a doubly-loaded loop antenna,” in Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 660–662.

E. Suzuki, T. Miyakawa, H. Ota, K. I. Arai, and R. Sato, “Characteristics of an optical magnetic field probe consisting of a loop antenna element doubly-loaded with LiNbO3,” in 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 88–91.

M. Tkahashi, H. Ota, K. Ichi Arai, and R. Sato, “A study on magnetic near-field measurements above a patch antenna using an optical waveguide probe with a loop element,” in 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (IEEE, 2004), pp. 186–190.

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