Abstract

We report a highly sensitive refractive index (RI) sensor based on three cascaded single-mode fiber tapers, in which a weak taper is sandwiched between the two tapers to improve the sensitivity of the sensor. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the device is 0.286nm for a 0.01 RI change, which is about four times higher than that of the normal two-cascaded-taper-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer. In addition, the sensitivity of the device could be enhanced by tapering a longer and thinner middle weak taper. Such kinds of low-cost and highly sensitive fiber-optic RI sensors would find applications in chemical or biochemical sensing fields.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Laffout and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606–1612 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultralong-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Villatoro and D. M. Hernandez, “Low-cost optical fiber refractive index sensor based on core diameter mismatch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1409–1413 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladding multimode tapered optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Wei, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Fiber inline core-cladding-mode Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by two-point CO2 laser irradiations,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 669–671(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, “Fiber in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining for refractive index measurement with high sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370–374 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Refractometry based on a photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 617–619 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 5711–5720 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, “Fiber in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining for refractive index measurement with high sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Refractometry based on a photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 617–619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wei, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Fiber inline core-cladding-mode Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by two-point CO2 laser irradiations,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 669–671(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 5711–5720 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultralong-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladding multimode tapered optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Laffout and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776(2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1991 (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Barnes, J.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Chen, N.

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. F.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L.

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffout and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, J. M.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
[CrossRef]

Greig, P.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gwandu, B. A. L.

He, S.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, D. M.

Iadicicco, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jha, R.

Jian, S.

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, M. J.

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
[CrossRef]

Laffout, G.

G. Laffout and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lan, X.

T. Wei, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Fiber inline core-cladding-mode Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by two-point CO2 laser irradiations,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 669–671(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Li, H.

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, W. S.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776(2001).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H.-P.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Mo, Q. J.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultralong-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladding multimode tapered optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oleschuk, R. D.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pang, F.

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Pei, L.

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Rao, Y. J.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultralong-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J 138, 343–354(1991).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talavera, D.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladding multimode tapered optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villatoro, J.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, T.

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

T. Wei, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Fiber inline core-cladding-mode Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by two-point CO2 laser irradiations,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 669–671(2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

T. Wei, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Fiber inline core-cladding-mode Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by two-point CO2 laser irradiations,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 669–671(2009).
[CrossRef]

Yam, S. S.-H.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
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J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Zeng, X.

F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, S.

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

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T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultralong-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
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J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladding multimode tapered optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (7)

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Fiber inline core-cladding-mode Mach–Zehnder interferometer fabricated by two-point CO2 laser irradiations,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 669–671(2009).
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L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 30–32 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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F. Pang, H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Cladding-mode resonance of a double-cladding fiber at a near modal cut-off wavelength for RI sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094028 (2010).
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T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Fan, W. Jiang, S. Feng, R. Zhao, S. Zheng, H. Li, L. Pei, and S. Jian, “Comb-filter based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer using a twin-core fiber,” in 2010 Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the improved three-taper MZI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic image of the tapers: (a) the diameter of the side taper waist is 20 μm , and the taper length is 6.1 mm ; (b) the diameter of the weak taper waist is 76 μm , and the taper length is 698 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra of the two-taper MZI and the IST-MZIs: (a) the L is 24 mm ; (b) the L is 60 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial frequency spectra of the IST-MZIs with L = 24 mm and L = 60 mm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength shift of the two-taper MZI and IST-MZIs: (a) the L is 24 mm ; (b) the L is 60 mm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength shift of the two-taper MZI (black circles) and the other three IST-MZIs with Weak Taper-1 (red squares), Weak Taper-2 (green triangles), Weak Taper-3 (blue diamonds); the L is 60 mm .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effective RI of the Cladding Modes LP 0 m Versus the Surrounding RI Changes

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effective RI of the Cladding Mode LP 0 , 7 with Different Diameters

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ m = 2 π Δ n eff m L λ ,
I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 cos ( Φ m ) ,
Δ λ λ 2 Δ n eff m L .
δ λ n 2 δ n eff m L 2 n + 1 .
ξ = 1 λ 0 2 Δ m eff L ,

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