Abstract

We propose a method of rotating the analyzer in front of the photodetector in a heterodyne interferometer system to implement optical phase shift and detection sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. When the analyzer is rotated to shift the phase curve to be near the phase jump point, the phase detection sensitivity of the SPR sensor can be greatly enhanced. Theoretical calculations of a prism-coupled SPR device were performed using this method. Experimental result using an electro-optic heterodyne interferometer is reported.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004 (2)

2003 (1)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. H. Chen, C. C. Hsu, and D. C. Su, “Measurement of wavelength shift by using surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 209, 167–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jump and interferometric surface plasmon resonance image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. A. Depine, V. A. Presa, and J. M. Simon, “Resonant excitation of surface electromagnetic waves: An analogy between metallic films and gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1581–1589(1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. C. Cullen, R. G. W. Brown, and C. R. Lowe, “Detection of immuno-complex formation via surface plasmon resonance on gold-coated diffraction gratings,” Biosensors 3, 211–225(1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Beloglazov, A. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. G. W.

D. C. Cullen, R. G. W. Brown, and C. R. Lowe, “Detection of immuno-complex formation via surface plasmon resonance on gold-coated diffraction gratings,” Biosensors 3, 211–225(1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

K. H. Chen, C. C. Hsu, and D. C. Su, “Measurement of wavelength shift by using surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 209, 167–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, F. C.

Cullen, D. C.

D. C. Cullen, R. G. W. Brown, and C. R. Lowe, “Detection of immuno-complex formation via surface plasmon resonance on gold-coated diffraction gratings,” Biosensors 3, 211–225(1988).
[CrossRef]

Depine, R. A.

R. A. Depine, V. A. Presa, and J. M. Simon, “Resonant excitation of surface electromagnetic waves: An analogy between metallic films and gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1581–1589(1989).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jump and interferometric surface plasmon resonance image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Ho, H. P.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. C.

K. H. Chen, C. C. Hsu, and D. C. Su, “Measurement of wavelength shift by using surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 209, 167–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. S.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jump and interferometric surface plasmon resonance image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kochergin, V. E.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

Ksenevich, T. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. M.

Law, W. C.

Lin, C.

Liu, T.

Lowe, C. R.

D. C. Cullen, R. G. W. Brown, and C. R. Lowe, “Detection of immuno-complex formation via surface plasmon resonance on gold-coated diffraction gratings,” Biosensors 3, 211–225(1988).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, S. G.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jump and interferometric surface plasmon resonance image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pao, M. C.

Presa, V. A.

R. A. Depine, V. A. Presa, and J. M. Simon, “Resonant excitation of surface electromagnetic waves: An analogy between metallic films and gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1581–1589(1989).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Shen, S.

Simon, J. M.

R. A. Depine, V. A. Presa, and J. M. Simon, “Resonant excitation of surface electromagnetic waves: An analogy between metallic films and gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1581–1589(1989).
[CrossRef]

Su, D. C.

K. H. Chen, C. C. Hsu, and D. C. Su, “Measurement of wavelength shift by using surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 209, 167–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, W. K.

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. J.

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

Wu, C. M.

Wu, S. Y.

Yee, S. S.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C. Y.

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. L.

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. Q.

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. G.

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jump and interferometric surface plasmon resonance image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biosensors (1)

D. C. Cullen, R. G. W. Brown, and C. R. Lowe, “Detection of immuno-complex formation via surface plasmon resonance on gold-coated diffraction gratings,” Biosensors 3, 211–225(1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. A. Depine, V. A. Presa, and J. M. Simon, “Resonant excitation of surface electromagnetic waves: An analogy between metallic films and gratings,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1581–1589(1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. H. Chen, C. C. Hsu, and D. C. Su, “Measurement of wavelength shift by using surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 209, 167–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B (3)

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. J. Wang, C. Y. Yin, and S. G. Zhu, “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B 76, 199–202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a three-layer (prism, metal, and air) KR-type SPR sensor. (b) Calculated reflected light phase versus the incident angle for the three-layer KR-type SPR sensors with different metal film thicknesses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated results of the SPR sensor phase slope at the resonance angle versus the metal film thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the electro-optic heterodyne system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated results of the phase shift slope at the resonance angle versus the analyzer rotation angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculation (a) and measurement (b) results of the phase shift versus the incident angle for five different analyzer rotation angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflected light intensity counterpart of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental results of time evolution of phase change due to He gas injection for five different analyzer rotation angles. (a)  α = 9 ° , 11 ° , and 13 ° (negative phase slope). (b)  α = 14 ° and 17 ° (positive phase slope).

Equations (6)

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r 123 t = r 12 t + r 23 t e i 2 k z 2 d 2 1 + r 12 t r 23 t e i 2 k z 2 d 2 = | r 123 t | exp ( ϕ 123 t ) ,
r i j t = E i t E j t E i t + E j t , E I t = { n I 2 / k z I , k z I , t = p t = s ( I = i , j ; i , j = 1 , 2 , 3 ) .
k z i = k 0 n i 2 n 1 2 sin 2 θ ,
E PD = r 123 p cos α + r 123 s sin α .
E PD = ( | r 123 p | sin ϕ 123 p cos α + | r 123 s | sin ϕ 123 s sin α ) + i ( | r 123 p | cos ϕ 123 p cos α + | r 123 s | cos ϕ 123 s sin α ) .
Δ Φ = tan 1 ( | r 123 p | sin ϕ 123 p cos α + | r 123 s | sin ϕ 123 s sin α | r 123 p | cos ϕ 123 p cos α + | r 123 s | cos ϕ 123 s sin α ) .

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