Abstract

We present a single-cell gap-transflective liquid crystal display (LCD) characterized by a π cell having bulk-type liquid crystal (LC) bistability and an optical film configuration. The π cell has two stable states, which are a twisted and a nontwisted LC state. We used the twisted LC state for the reflective part connected with nonpatterned electrodes, producing a vertical field in the proposed transflective LCD. Also the nontwisted LC state was for the transmissive part with interdigitated patterned electrodes driving an in-plane field in the device. The simulated and experimental results show good electro-optical characteristics in both the reflective and transmissive parts.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663–2668 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Y. Kim, Z. Ze, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and M. H. Yi, “Single-mode transflective liquid crystal display tailored for wide-band single gamma curve,” Opt. Express 16, 18102–18108 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3080–3081 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716–3718 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339(1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.
  19. I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504(2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ze, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3080–3081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339(1984).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339(1984).
[CrossRef]

Brett, P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Brown, C. V.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Chen, C. P.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Dozov, I.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durand, G.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, J.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.-X.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663–2668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and M. H. Yi, “Single-mode transflective liquid crystal display tailored for wide-band single gamma curve,” Opt. Express 16, 18102–18108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. H.

J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoon, J. H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Jhun, C. G.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. C.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Jung, J.-W.

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.-G.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ze, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-R.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663–2668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, M.-E.

Koehler-Beran, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339(1984).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

Lee, J. L.

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ze, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3080–3081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, U. J.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663–2668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and M. H. Yi, “Single-mode transflective liquid crystal display tailored for wide-band single gamma curve,” Opt. Express 16, 18102–18108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. J.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3080–3081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, R.

Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.-G.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nobili, M.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruding, J.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Sage, I. C.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Shin, S.

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3080–3081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wood, E. L.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

Wu, S. T.

Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ze, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. X.

Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, M. H.

Yokoyama, H.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoneya, M.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504(2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16, 2663–2668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ze, Z.

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ze, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kim, Z. Ze, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Wide-view transflective liquid crystal display for mobile applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ze, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hong, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507(2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177–L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two-domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875–1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A mutimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, T.-H. Lee, J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kim, Y. Choi, S.-G. Kang, Y.-C. Yang, S. Shin, and J. H. Hoon, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap in patterned vertically aligned mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7827–7830(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3080–3081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-G. Kang, T.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, H.-R. Kim, and J. H. Hoon, “Wide viewing transflective liquid crystal display with a patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 476, 213–225(2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “A fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329–339(1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (1)

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, “Grating aligned bistable nematic device,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 37–40.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional diagram of the proposed transflective mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Poincaré sphere schematic describing the optically dark and bright states of the transmissive part.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase transition of LCs according to the voltage applied to the flat electrodes, which produce a vertical electric field in the reflective part.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical dispersion characteristics simulated at the reflective part of the proposed transflective LC mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distribution of the LC director according to the voltage applied to the interdigitated electrode, which produces a horizontal electric field in the transmissive part of the proposed transflective LC mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated optical dispersion characteristics according to the voltage in the transmissive part of the proposed transflective LC mode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance and transmittance measured according to the applied voltage.

Equations (1)

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Δ n ( θ ) = 1 d 0 d n e n o n e 2 sin 2 θ + n o 2 cos 2 θ d z n o .

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