Abstract

We demonstrated an erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube- dispersed polyimide (SWNT-PI) film. Different mode-locking operations were compared and analyzed utilizing SWNT-PI films with different concentrations (2, 1, and 0.25  wt.%, respectively). It was found that the continuous single-pulse mode-locking operation was often accompanied by a continuous wave oscillation part for the 1 and 0.25  wt.% SWNT-PI films, whereas the 2  wt.% SWNT-PI film presented the most excellent mode-locking performance, thanks to sufficient modulation depth. Using the 2  wt.% SWNT-PI film, a stable pulse train with a pulse width of 840fs and a repetition rate of 15.3MHz was achieved. The average output power was 0.33mW at the pump power of 155mW under an output coupling ratio of 10%. Operational performance of the laser cavity when employing the 2  wt.% SWNT-PI film was also demonstrated.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (4)

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17, 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Senoo, N. Nishizawa, Y. Sakakibara, K. Sumimura, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “Polarization-maintaining, high-energy, wavelength-tunable, Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using carbon-nanotube polyimide film,” Opt. Express 17, 20233–20241 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 μm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 21191–21198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15, 9176–9183 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Nakazawa, S. Nakahara, T. Hirooka, M. Yoshida, T. Kaino, and K. Komatsu, “Polymer saturable absorber materials in the 1.5 μm band using poly-methyl-methacrylate and polystyrene with single-wall carbon nanotubes and their application to a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 915–917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200 fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, III, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1469–1477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200 fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics(Academic, 2001).

Aitchison, B.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boul, P. J.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, R. K.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. P.

Chang, C. M.

Chen, X. Z.

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Chiu, J. C.

Colbert, D. T.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demokan, M. S.

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, III, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1469–1477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Duling, I. N.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, III, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1469–1477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, J. H.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Hasan, T.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hennrich, F.

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirooka, T.

Huffman, C. B.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoga, E.

Itoh, K.

Iverson, T.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaino, T.

Kaskela, A.

Kataura, H.

Y. Senoo, N. Nishizawa, Y. Sakakibara, K. Sumimura, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “Polarization-maintaining, high-energy, wavelength-tunable, Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using carbon-nanotube polyimide film,” Opt. Express 17, 20233–20241 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200 fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kivistö, S.

Komatsu, K.

Kumazawa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. F.

Lee, C. K.

Lee, T. R.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, J. J.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, A.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

Man, W. S.

Maniwa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mark, J. E.

J. E. Mark, Polymer Data Handbook (Oxford University, 1999).

Maruyama, S.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morimune, K.

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, S.

Nakazawa, M.

Namiki, S.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200 fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nasibulin, A. G.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishizawa, N.

Ohtsuka, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Popov, S. V.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinzler, A. G.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Macias, F.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200 fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

Seno, Y.

Senoo, Y.

Set, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelimov, K.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirato, T.

Shohda, F.

Shon, Y.-S.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalley, R. E.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sumimura, K.

Sun, Z.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Taylor, J. R.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200 fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trust, I. N.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Umezu, I.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Yamashita, S.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yoshida, M.

Zhang, X. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and I. N. Trust, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977(2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200 fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17, 2358–2363 (2009).
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F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 μm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 21191–21198 (2008).
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J. C. Chiu, Y. F. Lan, C. M. Chang, X. Z. Chen, C. Y. Yeh, C. K. Lee, G. R. Lin, J. J. Lin, and W. H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express 18, 3592–3600 (2010).
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J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15, 9176–9183 (2007).
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N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 9429–9435 (2008).
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Y. Senoo, N. Nishizawa, Y. Sakakibara, K. Sumimura, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “Polarization-maintaining, high-energy, wavelength-tunable, Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using carbon-nanotube polyimide film,” Opt. Express 17, 20233–20241 (2009).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, F. Wang, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Generation of ultra-fast laser pulses using nanotube mode-lockers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y.-S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558(1999).
[CrossRef]

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G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics(Academic, 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photos and (b) optical absorption spectra of three SWNT-PI composite films with different SWNT concentrations (2–0.25, 3–1, and 4 2   wt. % ) and a pure PI film ( 1 0   wt. % ). All the films are 50 μm thick.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscopy images of SWNT-PI composite films with SWNT concentrations of (a) 0.25 (b) 1, and (c) 2   wt. % . All scale bars are 50 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of (a) the laser cavity setup and (b) the SWNT-PI film onto the fiber ferrule (EDF, erbium-doped fiber).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Output spectrum at the pump power of 134 mW for the 2   wt. % SWNT-PI film, (b) corresponding temporal pulse train, and (c) autocorrelation of the pulse train.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Output spectrum at the pump power of 113 mW for the 1   wt. % SWNT-PI film (inset, corresponding temporal pulse train). (b) Output spectrum of another state without a cw oscillation part at different pump power and PC orientation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Output spectrum at the pump power of 200 mW for the 0.25   wt. % SWNT-PI film (inset: corresponding temporal pulse train). (b) Output spectrum of another state without a cw oscillation part at different pump power and PC orientation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluctuations of the spectral bandwidth and center wavelength over 12 h .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Mode-Locking Performance for All Three SWNT-PI Films

Metrics