Abstract

A pinhole camera has been designed, fabricated, and tested for the production of multiple images for integrated circuits, consisting of an array of precisely positioned, uniform diameter pinholes and a vacuum back to hold the film or plate. This camera was designed to replace the step-and-repeat camera method that is presently used for producing multiple images. The two basic requirements for repetition of circuit patterns are the achievement of high image quality and precise registration between all the masks in a set. The arrangement discussed here permits lines of 12.5 μm width in the final working mask with precise registration to all other masks in the set.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. J. Murray, R. E. Maurer, Semicond. Prod. 5, 30 (1962).
  2. W. F. Rudge, W. E. Harding, W. Muttes, IBM J. Res. Develop. 2, 146 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. C. Southall, Mirrors, Prisms and Lenses (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1933), 3rd ed., Chap. 1, p. 5.
  4. A. C. Hardy, F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw–Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1932), Chap. 7, pp. 124–127.
  5. Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 8, 403 (1879).
  6. Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1887–1892), Vol. 3, p. 429.
  7. L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman & Sons, London, 1948), Vol. 1, Chap. 3, pp. 84–93.
  8. C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-Rays and Material Particles (J. W. Edwards, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1949), 2nd rev. ed., Chap. 4, p. 80.
  9. R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1956), 3rd ed., p. 272.

1963 (1)

W. F. Rudge, W. E. Harding, W. Muttes, IBM J. Res. Develop. 2, 146 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. J. Murray, R. E. Maurer, Semicond. Prod. 5, 30 (1962).

1879 (1)

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 8, 403 (1879).

Harding, W. E.

W. F. Rudge, W. E. Harding, W. Muttes, IBM J. Res. Develop. 2, 146 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy, F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw–Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1932), Chap. 7, pp. 124–127.

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman & Sons, London, 1948), Vol. 1, Chap. 3, pp. 84–93.

Maurer, R. E.

J. J. Murray, R. E. Maurer, Semicond. Prod. 5, 30 (1962).

Meyer, C. F.

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-Rays and Material Particles (J. W. Edwards, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1949), 2nd rev. ed., Chap. 4, p. 80.

Murray, J. J.

J. J. Murray, R. E. Maurer, Semicond. Prod. 5, 30 (1962).

Muttes, W.

W. F. Rudge, W. E. Harding, W. Muttes, IBM J. Res. Develop. 2, 146 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, F. H.

A. C. Hardy, F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw–Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1932), Chap. 7, pp. 124–127.

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 8, 403 (1879).

Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1887–1892), Vol. 3, p. 429.

Rudge, W. F.

W. F. Rudge, W. E. Harding, W. Muttes, IBM J. Res. Develop. 2, 146 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Southall, J. P. C.

J. P. C. Southall, Mirrors, Prisms and Lenses (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1933), 3rd ed., Chap. 1, p. 5.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1956), 3rd ed., p. 272.

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

W. F. Rudge, W. E. Harding, W. Muttes, IBM J. Res. Develop. 2, 146 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag. (1)

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 8, 403 (1879).

Semicond. Prod. (1)

J. J. Murray, R. E. Maurer, Semicond. Prod. 5, 30 (1962).

Other (6)

J. P. C. Southall, Mirrors, Prisms and Lenses (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1933), 3rd ed., Chap. 1, p. 5.

A. C. Hardy, F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw–Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1932), Chap. 7, pp. 124–127.

Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1887–1892), Vol. 3, p. 429.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman & Sons, London, 1948), Vol. 1, Chap. 3, pp. 84–93.

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-Rays and Material Particles (J. W. Edwards, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1949), 2nd rev. ed., Chap. 4, p. 80.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1956), 3rd ed., p. 272.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometrical optics of a pinhole camera showing origin of diffraction effects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplitude of light wave along axis vs relative distance from aperture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Portion of wave front showing first Fresnel zones for points B & B′.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometrical arrangement of pinhole array camera.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multipinhole camera.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

One unit of pinhole pattern showing 0.25, 0.19, 0.13 and 0.06 mm lines.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Random patterns from etched silicon wafer showing registration.

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