Abstract

A modified Michelson interferometer with a stable He–Ne laser source has been used to study fluctuations in the mean refractive index over a long path through the turbulent atmosphere. Distinct interference fringes were obtained at mirror separations up to 177 m, corresponding to an optical path difference of 354 m. The spatial stability of the interference fringes was found to decrease with increasing optical path length, indicating an increasing contribution from the atmosphere. Details of the interferometer and the experimental procedure are given as well as a discussion of the fluctuations in the mean refractive index.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Tolansky, An Introduction to Interferometry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1955), pp. 68–70, and 84–117.
  2. T. Morokuma, K. F. Nefflen, T. R. Lawrence, T. M. Klucher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 394 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Anonymous, NBS Tech. News Bull. 47, 80 (1963).
  4. A. G. McNish, Science 146, 177 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Javan, E. A. Ballik, W. L. Bond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 96 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 165 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. H. Enloe, J. L. Rodda, Proc. IEEE 53, 165 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 319.
  9. K. W. Meissner, V. Kaufman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 942 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. R. Bataruchkova, A. I. Kartashev, A. P. Kirichenko, Opt. Spectry. 14, 159 (1963).
  11. K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gilliland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

L. H. Enloe, J. L. Rodda, Proc. IEEE 53, 165 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

A. G. McNish, Science 146, 177 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gilliland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (4)

T. Morokuma, K. F. Nefflen, T. R. Lawrence, T. M. Klucher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 394 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Anonymous, NBS Tech. News Bull. 47, 80 (1963).

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 165 (1963).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Bataruchkova, A. I. Kartashev, A. P. Kirichenko, Opt. Spectry. 14, 159 (1963).

1962 (1)

1959 (1)

Anonymous,

Anonymous, NBS Tech. News Bull. 47, 80 (1963).

Ballik, E. A.

Bataruchkova, N. R.

N. R. Bataruchkova, A. I. Kartashev, A. P. Kirichenko, Opt. Spectry. 14, 159 (1963).

Bond, W. L.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 319.

Cook, H. D.

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gilliland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enloe, L. H.

L. H. Enloe, J. L. Rodda, Proc. IEEE 53, 165 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Gilliland, K. E.

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gilliland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaseja, T. S.

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 165 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 165 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. Javan, E. A. Ballik, W. L. Bond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 96 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kartashev, A. I.

N. R. Bataruchkova, A. I. Kartashev, A. P. Kirichenko, Opt. Spectry. 14, 159 (1963).

Kaufman, V.

Kirichenko, A. P.

N. R. Bataruchkova, A. I. Kartashev, A. P. Kirichenko, Opt. Spectry. 14, 159 (1963).

Klucher, T. M.

Lawrence, T. R.

McNish, A. G.

A. G. McNish, Science 146, 177 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meissner, K. W.

Mielenz, K. D.

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gilliland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morokuma, T.

Nefflen, K. F.

Rodda, J. L.

L. H. Enloe, J. L. Rodda, Proc. IEEE 53, 165 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, R. B.

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gilliland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, An Introduction to Interferometry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1955), pp. 68–70, and 84–117.

Townes, C. H.

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 165 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 319.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

NBS Tech. News Bull. (1)

Anonymous, NBS Tech. News Bull. 47, 80 (1963).

Opt. Spectry. (1)

N. R. Bataruchkova, A. I. Kartashev, A. P. Kirichenko, Opt. Spectry. 14, 159 (1963).

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 165 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. H. Enloe, J. L. Rodda, Proc. IEEE 53, 165 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. G. McNish, Science 146, 177 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Mielenz, H. D. Cook, K. E. Gilliland, R. B. Stephens, Science 146, 1672 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 319.

S. Tolansky, An Introduction to Interferometry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1955), pp. 68–70, and 84–117.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modified Michelson interferometer. L, He–Ne laser; L1, condensing lens; L2, collimating lens; A, aperture; B, beam splitter; M1, reference arm mirror; M2, atmospheric arm mirror; P, photographic film or viewing screen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference fringes photographed at 1/250 sec with the interferometer shown in Fig. 1, at an optical path difference of 354 m.

Equations (4)

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I ( x , t ) = A a ( t ) 2 + A r 2 + 2 A a ( t ) A r cos ( 2 π L g Δ n / λ ) ,
N = L 0 / λ = n ¯ L g / λ .
N + 1 = ( n ¯ + Δ n ) L g / λ .
1 = L g Δ n / λ .

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