Abstract

The zenith skylight intensity was measured, with a resolution of 10 Å, over the wavelength range from 5200 Å to 6400 Å during a total solar eclipse at Hermon, Maine. The intensity was found to change by about two orders of magnitude in the 2-min period before totality and reached a minimum during totality of 19.5 kR/Å at 5200 Å. The spectral distribution remained that of the day sky until the sun was more than 99.8% obscured. During totality, the shorter wavelengths were enhanced, indicating a shift to the blue in sky color. Comparisons with an independent measurement from an aircraft show that the intensity scale height of the secondary scattered component, predominating at totality, is significantly less than that of the day sky. The measurements are compared with the day and twilight sky.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1965 (1)

1964 (1)

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

1956 (1)

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1949 (2)

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 215 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Hargreaves, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 43, 229 (1949).

1944 (1)

N. Betenska, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 54, 124 (1944).

1940 (1)

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCracken, in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCracken, in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

1931 (1)

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1928 (2)

Rayleigh, (R.J.S.), Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 19, 292 (1928).

The staff of the Photometry Department of the National Physical Laboratory, “The Variation of Natural Light During the Total Eclipse of the Sun on June 29th, 1927,” I. Eng. 21, 198 (1928).

1927 (1)

A. S. E. Ackermann, Nature 120, 83 (1927).
[CrossRef]

1925 (1)

“Measurements of Sky Brightness,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. New York 20, 583 (1925).

1919 (1)

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

1912 (2)

B. Walter, F. Goos, Z Physik 13, 564 (1912).

J. Elster, H. Geitel, Z. Physik 13, 852 (1912).

1905 (1)

C. Fabry, Compt. Rend. 141, 870 (1905).

1900 (1)

A. E. Kennelly, J. Franklin Inst. 150, 137 (1900).

1896 (1)

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil. Trans. Roy Soc. London 187, 433 (1896).
[CrossRef]

1889 (1)

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil Trans. Roy Soc. London 180, 363 (1889).
[CrossRef]

1715 (1)

E. Halley, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20, 245 (1715).

Abney, W. de W.

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil. Trans. Roy Soc. London 187, 433 (1896).
[CrossRef]

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil Trans. Roy Soc. London 180, 363 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, A. S. E.

A. S. E. Ackermann, Nature 120, 83 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, W.

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, C. C.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, K.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Betenska, N.

N. Betenska, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 54, 124 (1944).

Cochrun, B. L.

Crosswhite, H. M.

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Deehr, C. S.

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Eckweiler, H. J.

Elliott, S. D.

S. D. Elliott, in Proceedings of Project APEQS Symposium (Douglas Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, Calif.1964), p. 37.

Elster, J.

J. Elster, H. Geitel, Z. Physik 13, 852 (1912).

Fabry, C.

C. Fabry, Compt. Rend. 141, 870 (1905).

Fastie, W. G.

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Geitel, H.

J. Elster, H. Geitel, Z. Physik 13, 852 (1912).

Goos, F.

B. Walter, F. Goos, Z Physik 13, 564 (1912).

Grant, R.

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCracken, in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. McK.

Halley, E.

E. Halley, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20, 245 (1715).

Hargreaves, J.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Hargreaves, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 43, 229 (1949).

Hargreaves, R.

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Hulbert, E. O.

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 215 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Hulburt, E. O.

E. O. Hulburt, Nat. Geoph. Soc. Contrib. Techn. Pap., Solar Eclipse Ser. No. 2, 78 (1942).

Johnson, J.

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Kennelly, A. E.

A. E. Kennelly, J. Franklin Inst. 150, 137 (1900).

Koomen, M. J.

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

Kunz, J.

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

Little, W. F.

Lloyd, J. W. F.

MacCracken, C. D.

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCracken, in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Markham, T. P.

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Moore, J. G.

J. G. Moore, in Proceedings of Project APEQS Symposium (Douglas Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, Calif., 1964), p. 43.

Nardone, L. J.

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Orlova, N. S.

N. S. Orlova, Leningrad, Universitet. Uchenyye Zapiska, No. 190105 (1957) as Abstracted in A. I. D. Rept. B-64–20.

N. S. Orlova, Leningrad, Universitet. Uchenyye Zapiska, No. 132105 (1949) as abstracted in A. I. D. Rept. B-64–20.

Packer, D. M.

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, (R.J.S.), Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 19, 292 (1928).

Rees, M. H.

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, R. A.

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 215 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, C. H.

Silverman, S.

Stebbins, J.

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

Stetson, H. T.

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. Q.

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCracken, in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, T. E.

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil. Trans. Roy Soc. London 187, 433 (1896).
[CrossRef]

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil Trans. Roy Soc. London 180, 363 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Tousey, R.

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

Volz, F.

F. Volz, “Twilight Intensity at 20° Elevation,” AF 19-(640)4546 Scientific Report No. 2 (1961).

Walter, B.

B. Walter, F. Goos, Z Physik 13, 564 (1912).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, The Measurement of Colour (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, N. J., 1964), p. 258.

Ann. Geophys. (1)

W. G. Fastie, H. M. Crosswhite, T. P. Markham, Ann. Geophys. 17, 109 (1961).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (3)

R. Grant, as quoted by J. Q. Stewart, C. D. MacCracken, in Astrophys. J. 91, 51 (1940).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Stetson, W. Arnold, J. Johnson, Astrophys. J. 74, 122 (1931).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Batchelder, K. Batchelder, R. Hargreaves, J. Hargreaves, Astrophys. J. 123, 9 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. (1)

C. Fabry, Compt. Rend. 141, 870 (1905).

Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. (1)

Rayleigh, (R.J.S.), Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 19, 292 (1928).

I. Eng. (1)

The staff of the Photometry Department of the National Physical Laboratory, “The Variation of Natural Light During the Total Eclipse of the Sun on June 29th, 1927,” I. Eng. 21, 198 (1928).

J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. (1)

N. Betenska, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 54, 124 (1944).

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

A. E. Kennelly, J. Franklin Inst. 150, 137 (1900).

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. A. Richardson, E. O. Hulbert, J. Geophys. Res. 54, 215 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, T. P. Markham, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6059 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada (1)

J. Hargreaves, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 43, 229 (1949).

Nature (1)

A. S. E. Ackermann, Nature 120, 83 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Phil Trans. Roy Soc. London (1)

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil Trans. Roy Soc. London 180, 363 (1889).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. Roy Soc. London (1)

W. de W. Abney, T. E. Thorpe, Phil. Trans. Roy Soc. London 187, 433 (1896).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London (1)

E. Halley, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 20, 245 (1715).

Planetary Space Sci. (1)

C. S. Deehr, M. H. Rees, Planetary Space Sci. 12, 875 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. (1)

J. Kunz, J. Stebbins, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 50, 269 (1919).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. New York (1)

“Measurements of Sky Brightness,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. New York 20, 583 (1925).

Z Physik (1)

B. Walter, F. Goos, Z Physik 13, 564 (1912).

Z. Physik (1)

J. Elster, H. Geitel, Z. Physik 13, 852 (1912).

Other (8)

E. O. Hulburt, Nat. Geoph. Soc. Contrib. Techn. Pap., Solar Eclipse Ser. No. 2, 78 (1942).

M. J. Koomen, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, in The Airglow and the Aurorae, A. Dalgarno, E. B. Armstrong, Eds. (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1956).

J. G. Moore, in Proceedings of Project APEQS Symposium (Douglas Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, Calif., 1964), p. 43.

N. S. Orlova, Leningrad, Universitet. Uchenyye Zapiska, No. 132105 (1949) as abstracted in A. I. D. Rept. B-64–20.

N. S. Orlova, Leningrad, Universitet. Uchenyye Zapiska, No. 190105 (1957) as Abstracted in A. I. D. Rept. B-64–20.

W. D. Wright, The Measurement of Colour (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, N. J., 1964), p. 258.

S. D. Elliott, in Proceedings of Project APEQS Symposium (Douglas Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, Calif.1964), p. 37.

F. Volz, “Twilight Intensity at 20° Elevation,” AF 19-(640)4546 Scientific Report No. 2 (1961).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The absolute zenith intensity at two wavelengths measured during the total solar eclipse at Hermon, Maine. The times for second and third contacts are 21 h 43 min 0.9 sec and 21 h 44 min 3.2 sec, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The absolute zenith twilight intensity for three wavelengths measured at Hermon, Maine, two days after the eclipse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A comparison of the intensity distribution with wavelength at totality and the twilight sky at a solar depression of 5.1°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The color change around totality expressed as the ratio of the intensity at 6000 Å to that 5200 Å.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A plot showing that the relative spectral distribution of the day sky is the same as that of the zenith sky just before totality, and also that the distribution at totality is similar to that of the twilight at 5.1° solar depression.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A plot showing that the change in the spectral distribution between totality and just before totality is similar to the change between daylight and twilight at a solar depression of 5.1°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The color changes during early twilight expressed as a ratio of intensities at two wavelengths.

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