Abstract

The peak current, power, and half-peak duration of the current through a flash tube are determined. The flash tube may be considered as an element in an R–L–C circuit whose electrical behavior is dependent on a single parameter. The variation of tube current with voltage is examined and the plasma impedance determined. The intensity, rise time, decay time, and half-peak duration of the radiation pulse are determined for a range of tube geometries and gas pressures. The duration of the radiation pulse depends on that of the current, but the intensity is dependent on both gas pressure and power density.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. E. Edgerton, R. Bonazoli, J. T. Lamb, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 63, 15 (1954).
  2. M. P. Vanyukov, A. A. Mak, Soviet Phys.—Usp. 66, 137 (1958).
  3. I. S. Marshak, Impulse Light Sources (Gosudarstvenoye Energeticheskoye Isdatelstvo, Moscow, 1963).
  4. V. I. Vasiliev, M. S. Levchuk, I. S. Marshak, Opt. Spectry., 11, 61 (1961).
  5. J. H. Park, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Std. 39, 191 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. R. Wooding, Electron. Eng. 33, 73 (1961).
  7. S. C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 54 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. S. Marshak, in Proc. Third International Congress on High Speed Photography, R. B. Collins, Ed. (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 30.

1961 (2)

V. I. Vasiliev, M. S. Levchuk, I. S. Marshak, Opt. Spectry., 11, 61 (1961).

E. R. Wooding, Electron. Eng. 33, 73 (1961).

1958 (1)

M. P. Vanyukov, A. A. Mak, Soviet Phys.—Usp. 66, 137 (1958).

1954 (2)

H. E. Edgerton, R. Bonazoli, J. T. Lamb, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 63, 15 (1954).

S. C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 54 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

J. H. Park, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Std. 39, 191 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Bonazoli, R.

H. E. Edgerton, R. Bonazoli, J. T. Lamb, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 63, 15 (1954).

Edgerton, H. E.

H. E. Edgerton, R. Bonazoli, J. T. Lamb, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 63, 15 (1954).

Lamb, J. T.

H. E. Edgerton, R. Bonazoli, J. T. Lamb, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 63, 15 (1954).

Levchuk, M. S.

V. I. Vasiliev, M. S. Levchuk, I. S. Marshak, Opt. Spectry., 11, 61 (1961).

Lin, S. C.

S. C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 54 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Mak, A. A.

M. P. Vanyukov, A. A. Mak, Soviet Phys.—Usp. 66, 137 (1958).

Marshak, I. S.

V. I. Vasiliev, M. S. Levchuk, I. S. Marshak, Opt. Spectry., 11, 61 (1961).

I. S. Marshak, Impulse Light Sources (Gosudarstvenoye Energeticheskoye Isdatelstvo, Moscow, 1963).

I. S. Marshak, in Proc. Third International Congress on High Speed Photography, R. B. Collins, Ed. (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 30.

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Std. 39, 191 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Vanyukov, M. P.

M. P. Vanyukov, A. A. Mak, Soviet Phys.—Usp. 66, 137 (1958).

Vasiliev, V. I.

V. I. Vasiliev, M. S. Levchuk, I. S. Marshak, Opt. Spectry., 11, 61 (1961).

Wooding, E. R.

E. R. Wooding, Electron. Eng. 33, 73 (1961).

Electron. Eng. (1)

E. R. Wooding, Electron. Eng. 33, 73 (1961).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 54 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Std. (1)

J. H. Park, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Std. 39, 191 (1947).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. (1)

H. E. Edgerton, R. Bonazoli, J. T. Lamb, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 63, 15 (1954).

Opt. Spectry. (1)

V. I. Vasiliev, M. S. Levchuk, I. S. Marshak, Opt. Spectry., 11, 61 (1961).

Soviet Phys.—Usp. (1)

M. P. Vanyukov, A. A. Mak, Soviet Phys.—Usp. 66, 137 (1958).

Other (2)

I. S. Marshak, Impulse Light Sources (Gosudarstvenoye Energeticheskoye Isdatelstvo, Moscow, 1963).

I. S. Marshak, in Proc. Third International Congress on High Speed Photography, R. B. Collins, Ed. (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 30.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The discharge circuit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of reduced half-peak duration of current with the parameter α. Changes in α were obtained by changing (i) the geometry of the tube with V0 = 10 kV and p = 10 torr, tubes a to f ⊙; (ii) the gas pressure in tube a with V0 = 10 kV ×; (iii) the gas pressure in tube a with V0 = 5.0 kV ◬. The broken lines indicate that the final current excursion is negative.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the reduced peak current with the parameter α. Variables were (i) the tube geometry with V0 = 10 kV and p = 10 torr, tubes a to f ⊙; (ii) the gas pressure in tube a with V0 = 10 kV ×; (iii) the gas pressure in tube a with V0 = 17.5 kV ⊡; (iv) the gas pressure in tube a with V0 = 5.0 kV ◬; (v) copper braid in parallel with tube ●.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the parameter α on the power associated with the peak current. The parameter α was varied by changing (i) the geometry of the tube when V0 = 10 kV and the pressure of argon was 10 torr ⊙; (ii) the gas pressure with tube a ×. The peak power was also determined at various pressures in tube a ●.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of time of rise of current on the circuit parameter α which was varied by changing: (i) the tube geometry with p = 10 torr and V0 = 10 kV tubes a to f ⊙; (ii) the pressure in tube a, V0 = 10 kV ×.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the potential difference of the electrodes and the current through the discharge (tracings of original oscillograms).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the plasma specific impedance on current density. The current density was varied by changing: (i) the tube geometry with V0 = 10 kV, p = 10 torr ⊙; (ii) the gas pressure with V0 = 10 kV, tube a ×; (iii) the gas pressure with V0 = 17.5 kV, tube a ◬.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of current and radiation with time (i) tube b, α = 0.052; (ii) tube a, α = 0.22; (iii) tube c, α = 0.62; (iv) tube d, α = 1.40; (v) tube f, α = 4.85. The gas pressure was 100 torr and V0 was 10 kV.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of rise times of tube a with argon pressure. V0 = 10 kV. Current, ⊙; radiation, ×; electrical power, ⊡.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of duration of radiation with gas pressure. Tube a, V0 = 10 kV. (i) Half-peak duration ×; (ii) half-peak duration of first peak when transient is bicuspid ◬. (iii) Time taken for intensity to fall from 99% to 1% of peak value ◬.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the duration of the electrical power ● and current ◬ pulses. The solid line gives the time during which the current in the first positive excursion is greater than half the peak value. The dotted line shows the time during which the current is greater than half the peak value, regardless of sign. Tube a, V0 = 10 kV.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relationships between the half-peak durations of current and radiant intensity. The current duration was varied by changing (i) the geometry of the tube with an argon pressure of 100 torr and V0 = 10 kV; the first positive excursion of the current in tube e appears to control the duration of the intensity; the half-peak duration was 5.4 μsec e′ but the current was negative for almost half this time; (ii) the argon pressure in tube a with V0 = 10 kV; (iii) by packing tube a with fragments of fused silica. The argon pressure was 100 torr and V0 = 10 kV.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Variation of radiant intensity with gas pressure. Tube a, V0 = 10 kV.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Variation of radiation intensity with power density in tube a with V0 = 10 kV. The units of power density are megawatts per cubic centimeter.

Tables (1)

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Table I Flash Tube Dimensions and Circuit Parameters

Equations (2)

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d I d T + 2 α I + I d T = 0 ,
α = 1 2 R ( C / L ) 1 2 .

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