Abstract

An analytical and experimental study of an automatic ellipsometer is reported. The polarized beam is modulated simultaneously by two ADP cells, and the corresponding two signals are separated and are used to adjust polarizer and analyzer settings in any of the four zones. The reproducibility of the setting has been demonstrated to be of the order of 0.01°.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. V. Kant, J. Lawson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 117 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. Ditchburn, G. A. J. Orchard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), B67, 608 (1954).
  3. G. K. T. Conn, G. K. Eaton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 484 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 463 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Takasaki, Japan. Appl. Phys. 29, 468 (1960).
  6. A. B. Winterbottom, Natl. Bur. Std. Misc. Publ. No. 256, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1964), p. 97.
  7. B. H. Billings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 819 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962).
  9. H. Takasaki, N. Okazaki, K. Kida, Appl. Opt. 3, 833 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. B. Winterbottom, Optical Studies of Metal Surfaces, The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society Report No. 1 (F. Bruns, Trondheim, Norway, 1955).
  11. F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
    [CrossRef]

1964

1963

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961

1960

H. Takasaki, Japan. Appl. Phys. 29, 468 (1960).

1954

R. W. Ditchburn, G. A. J. Orchard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), B67, 608 (1954).

G. K. T. Conn, G. K. Eaton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 484 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1948

1937

Billings, B. H.

Conn, G. K. T.

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, G. A. J. Orchard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), B67, 608 (1954).

Eaton, G. K.

Kant, C. V.

Kida, K.

Lawson, J.

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, N.

Orchard, G. A. J.

R. W. Ditchburn, G. A. J. Orchard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), B67, 608 (1954).

Passaglia, E.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962).

Steinberg, H. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Stromberg, R. R.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Takasaki, H.

Winterbottom, A. B.

A. B. Winterbottom, Natl. Bur. Std. Misc. Publ. No. 256, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1964), p. 97.

A. B. Winterbottom, Optical Studies of Metal Surfaces, The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society Report No. 1 (F. Bruns, Trondheim, Norway, 1955).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Japan. Appl. Phys.

H. Takasaki, Japan. Appl. Phys. 29, 468 (1960).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London)

R. W. Ditchburn, G. A. J. Orchard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), B67, 608 (1954).

Other

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962).

A. B. Winterbottom, Natl. Bur. Std. Misc. Publ. No. 256, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1964), p. 97.

A. B. Winterbottom, Optical Studies of Metal Surfaces, The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society Report No. 1 (F. Bruns, Trondheim, Norway, 1955).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical arrangement of an automatic ellipsometer. L1 and L2, collimating lenses; P, polarizer; A, analyzer; X1 and X2, ADP cells; Q, quarter-wave plate; S, test piece; and P.M., photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A block diagram of an automatic ellipsometer. SWP and SWQ: dpdt switches operated by cams that are mounted on the polarizer P, and the quarter-wave Q, and M1 and M2 are two-phase servomotors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A sectional diagram of the cell mounting. An ADP cell X is held in C, which a has spherical bottom and is accepted by a matching spherical recess of B. B is held in A, and azimuth adjustment can be made independent of the tilt adjustment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the zone representation and polarity-control circuits

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Close-up view of the cell mounts and optical feedback system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes of angular settings of polarizer and analyzer as a function of time as a gauge-block surface is irradiated with microwave radiant energy. The power density and frequency of the microwave are not measured. Origin of angle is arbitrary.

Tables (3)

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Table I The Condition of Zero Retardation Signal

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Table II The Condition of Zero Azimuth Signal

Tables Icon

Table III Combinations of α and β

Equations (7)

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| I M C S | = A β X β + 45 ° 2 Q ± 45 ° S 0 Δ , R p / R s X α - 45 ° 1 P α | I M C S |
S 0 Δ , R p / R s = P 0 R p / R s             R 0 Δ = 1 2 | R p 2 + R s 2 R p 2 - R s 2 0 0 R p 2 - R s 2 R p 2 + R s 2 0 0 0 0 2 R p R s cos Δ - 2 R p R s sin Δ 0 0 2 R p R s sin Δ 2 R p R s cos Δ | ,
P 0 R p / R s = 1 2 | R p 2 + R s 2 R p 2 - R s 2 0 0 R p 2 - R s 2 R p 2 + R s 2 0 0 0 0 2 R p R s 0 0 0 0 2 R p R s | .
T = ( I / I ) = 1 8 { [ ( R p 2 + R s 2 ) + ( R p 2 - R s 2 ) cos 2 α + 2 R p R s sin ( 2 β ± Δ ) sin 2 α ] ± 2 R p R s cos ( 2 β ± Δ ) 1 ± [ ( R p 2 + R s 2 ) cos 2 α + ( R p 2 - R s 2 ) ] 2 } .
= K E sin ( ω t + θ ) ,
S r / β = ± 1 2 R p R s sin ( 2 β ± Δ )             for Q ± 45 ° ,
S a / α = ± 1 4 ( R p 2 + R s 2 ) sin 2 α             for Q ± 45 ° .

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