Abstract

With the invention of the telescope and the microscope early in the 17th century, the production of optical lenses became an important factor in the development of these instruments for scientific observation and investigation. In spite of improvements in equipment and techniques, the obstacles to the production of suitable lenses were not surmounted until the 18th century because of lack of knowledge of the optical properties of lenses, and the difficulties in producing glass of suitable clarity due to primitive grinding and polishing techniques. The early astronomical lenses were produced by means of the primitive equipment of the mirror makers and polishers of pietre dure in Murano and Venice. The first professional apparatus for lens grinding and polishing was developed by Ippolito Francini of Florence, and subsequently improved by Eustachio Divini and Carlo Antonio Manzini. A major advance in the equipment and techniques was made by Giuseppe Campani of Rome in the second half of the century. Other important contributions were made by Christiaan Huygens in Holland and John Marshall in England. Toward the end of the 17th century, craftsmen in England and France made great strides in the improvement of apparatus and techniques for lens grinding and polishing. In spite of them, however, optical workshop practice improved extremely slowly, and it remained virtually unchanged into the 19th century.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Descartes, Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. Plus la Dioptrique, Les Météores, et la Géométrie (Leyden, 1637), pp. 19–21. Snell’s description of the law of optical refraction using cosecants, which he had developed in 1621, was posthumously published in 1662 by Isaac Voss with the title De lucis natura et proprietate…, p. 36.
  2. J. Kepler, Dioptrice seu demonstratio eorum quae visui et visibilibus propter conspicilla non ita pridem inventa accidunt (Augsburg, 1611), pp. 70–72.
  3. J. Kelly, The Life of John Dollond (London, 1808), 3rd ed., pp. 7, 61–77.
  4. P. P. G. Conti, “II Vetro per l’Ottica in Italia”, Atti della Societa Colombaria di Firenze, Anno 1930–31 (9Febbraio, 1931), pp. 36–39. A. Neri, L’arte vetraria distinta in libri sette, ne’quali si scroprono effetti mervigliosi e s’insegnano segretibellissirnidel vetronel fioco e altre cose curiose (Firenze, 1612).
  5. Ms. B., Institut de France, folio 13 recto and folio 21 verso.
  6. S. Drake, “Galileo Gleanings—XIV. Galileo and Giorlamo Magagnati”, Physis, 1964, Anno VI, fasc. 3, pp. 269–286; A. Favaro, “Amici e Corrispondenti di Galileo Galilei, II. Girolamo Magagnati,” Atti del Instituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, Serie 7, 7, 441 (1896).
  7. Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale, Vol. XX, p. 528. The correspondence between Galileo and Sagredo is reproduced in the Opere in Vols. X through XIII.
  8. C. A. Manzini, L’Occhiale All, Occhio, Dioptrica Pratica del Conte Carlo Antonio Manzini, Dottore Collegiato, Ecc. Dove si tratta della Luce; della Refractione de Raggi; dell’Occhio; delta Vista; e de gli aiuti, che dare si possono a gli Occhi per vedere quasi l’impossibile. Dove in oltre si spiegano le Regole Pratiche di Fabbricare OCCHIALI a tutte le Viste, E CANNONCHIALI da osservare i PIANETI, e le STELLE FISSE, da TERRA, da MARE, Et altri da ingrandire Migliaia di volte i minimi de gli Oggetti vicini (Bologna, 1660), p. 27.
  9. Ref. 8, p. 30.
  10. From an Italian 17th-century manuscript account entitled “A Treatise on Optics by Giovanni Christoforo Bolantio” which forms part of a bound manuscript volume with the general title “Trattato Sulla Maniera per Costruire Orologij” in the author’s collection.
  11. A. Favaro, Galileo Galilei e Suor Maria Celeste (Firenze, 1891), p. 405n.
  12. Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale, Vol. XV, p. 348. Letter from Bernardo Conti to Galileo dated 7December1633.
  13. C. V. Varetti, “L’Artefice di Galileo Ippolito Francini detto Tordo”, Rendiconti della R. Accadenia Nazionale Lincei, Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche, Serie Sesta, Vol. XV, Fasc. 3-4, Marzo–Aprile 1939, p. 245.
  14. Ref. 8, p. 33.
  15. E.O.M. Maignan, Perspectiva Horaria, sive de Horographia Gnomonica tum theoretica turn practica… praecipuam Admirationem habet thaumantias Catoptrica atque Dioptrica, id est reflexus, acrefractus a Speculo Cylindrico Solaris Radius, omnes, qui in Sphaera cogitari possunt, Circulos gnomonice reddens Iridis Modo ac Specie Lux quoque secundum, propriam Naturam sumpta suas ibi habet Partes, ubi e Principiis eius physicis Ratio redditur Reflexionum ac Refractionum eiusdem. Consequitur vero Sphericum sed etiam Hyperbolicum atque Ellipticum (Rome, 1648), pp. 687–705.
  16. [J. Hevelius], J. Hevelu Selenographia: sive Lunae Descriptio. Addita est, Lentes expoliendi Nova Ratio: ut et Telescopia diversa construendi: (Gedani, Danzig, 1647), p. 11.
  17. S. A. Bedini, “Seventeenth Century Italian Compound Microscopes”, Physis, 1963, Vol. V, fasc. 4, pp. 386–389.
  18. Philosophical Transactionsof the Royal Society, 1668, Vol. III, p. 842, “Microscope of a new fashion by the means whereof there hath been seen an animal lesser than any of those seen hitherto”.
  19. S. A. Bedini, “Giuseppe Campani, Pioneer Optical Inventor”, Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of the History of Science (Hermann, Paris), Vol. I, pp. 401, 404.
  20. G. Campani, Ragguaglio di Due Nuove Osservazioni Una Celeste in Ordine Alla Stella di Saturno: E Terrestre l’Altra in Ordine agli Strumenti Medesimi, Co’Quali si e Fatta l’Una e l‘Altra Osservazione, Dato al Serennissimo Principe Mattia di Toscana (Rome, 1664), pp. 24–27.
  21. According to J. C. Poggendorf, Geschichteder Physik (Leipzig, 1879), p. 376, “Divini had a rival in Rome, Giuseppe Campani … This rival surpassed Divini in the construction of lenses and acquired great fame in this art …”.
  22. S. A. Bedini, “The Optical Workshop Equipment of Giuseppe Campani, J. History Medicine Allied Sciences XVI, 18 (1961).
  23. F. de Bondaroy, “Memoires sur les objectifs”, Memoires de l’académie royale des sciences pour l’année 1764 (Amsterdam, 1768), pp. 251–261 and Plate 6.
  24. C. Huygens, Toutes les oeuvres et la correspondence de Christiaan Huygens (La Hague, 1886–1916), Tome IX (1663), pp. 400–401; Toutes les oeuvres et la correspondence de Christiaan Huygens Tome VIII (1683), pp. 432–440.
  25. R. Smith, A Compleat System of Opticks in four books (Cambridge, 1738), iii, pp. 281–301.
  26. R. Hooke, Micrographia: or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon (London, 1665), Preface.
  27. R. Descartes, Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. Plus la dioptrique, les météores, et la géomtrie (Leyden, 1637), pp. 19–21.
  28. I. Newton, Opticks (London, 1718), p. 83.
  29. R. T. Gunther, Early Science at Oxford (Oxford Univ. Press, 1930), Vol. VI, p. 352.
  30. Cherubin d’Orléans, Dioptrique Oculaire, ou la Théorique, la positive, et la mechanique, de l’oculaire dioptrique en toutes ses especes (Paris, 1671), Plates 47 and 52, pp. 340–355.

1964 (1)

S. Drake, “Galileo Gleanings—XIV. Galileo and Giorlamo Magagnati”, Physis, 1964, Anno VI, fasc. 3, pp. 269–286; A. Favaro, “Amici e Corrispondenti di Galileo Galilei, II. Girolamo Magagnati,” Atti del Instituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, Serie 7, 7, 441 (1896).

1963 (1)

S. A. Bedini, “Seventeenth Century Italian Compound Microscopes”, Physis, 1963, Vol. V, fasc. 4, pp. 386–389.

1961 (1)

S. A. Bedini, “The Optical Workshop Equipment of Giuseppe Campani, J. History Medicine Allied Sciences XVI, 18 (1961).

1939 (1)

C. V. Varetti, “L’Artefice di Galileo Ippolito Francini detto Tordo”, Rendiconti della R. Accadenia Nazionale Lincei, Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche, Serie Sesta, Vol. XV, Fasc. 3-4, Marzo–Aprile 1939, p. 245.

1931 (1)

P. P. G. Conti, “II Vetro per l’Ottica in Italia”, Atti della Societa Colombaria di Firenze, Anno 1930–31 (9Febbraio, 1931), pp. 36–39. A. Neri, L’arte vetraria distinta in libri sette, ne’quali si scroprono effetti mervigliosi e s’insegnano segretibellissirnidel vetronel fioco e altre cose curiose (Firenze, 1612).

1633 (1)

Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale, Vol. XV, p. 348. Letter from Bernardo Conti to Galileo dated 7December1633.

Bedini, S. A.

S. A. Bedini, “Seventeenth Century Italian Compound Microscopes”, Physis, 1963, Vol. V, fasc. 4, pp. 386–389.

S. A. Bedini, “The Optical Workshop Equipment of Giuseppe Campani, J. History Medicine Allied Sciences XVI, 18 (1961).

S. A. Bedini, “Giuseppe Campani, Pioneer Optical Inventor”, Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of the History of Science (Hermann, Paris), Vol. I, pp. 401, 404.

Campani, G.

G. Campani, Ragguaglio di Due Nuove Osservazioni Una Celeste in Ordine Alla Stella di Saturno: E Terrestre l’Altra in Ordine agli Strumenti Medesimi, Co’Quali si e Fatta l’Una e l‘Altra Osservazione, Dato al Serennissimo Principe Mattia di Toscana (Rome, 1664), pp. 24–27.

Conti, P. P. G.

P. P. G. Conti, “II Vetro per l’Ottica in Italia”, Atti della Societa Colombaria di Firenze, Anno 1930–31 (9Febbraio, 1931), pp. 36–39. A. Neri, L’arte vetraria distinta in libri sette, ne’quali si scroprono effetti mervigliosi e s’insegnano segretibellissirnidel vetronel fioco e altre cose curiose (Firenze, 1612).

d’Orléans, Cherubin

Cherubin d’Orléans, Dioptrique Oculaire, ou la Théorique, la positive, et la mechanique, de l’oculaire dioptrique en toutes ses especes (Paris, 1671), Plates 47 and 52, pp. 340–355.

de Bondaroy, F.

F. de Bondaroy, “Memoires sur les objectifs”, Memoires de l’académie royale des sciences pour l’année 1764 (Amsterdam, 1768), pp. 251–261 and Plate 6.

Descartes, R.

R. Descartes, Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. Plus la Dioptrique, Les Météores, et la Géométrie (Leyden, 1637), pp. 19–21. Snell’s description of the law of optical refraction using cosecants, which he had developed in 1621, was posthumously published in 1662 by Isaac Voss with the title De lucis natura et proprietate…, p. 36.

R. Descartes, Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. Plus la dioptrique, les météores, et la géomtrie (Leyden, 1637), pp. 19–21.

Drake, S.

S. Drake, “Galileo Gleanings—XIV. Galileo and Giorlamo Magagnati”, Physis, 1964, Anno VI, fasc. 3, pp. 269–286; A. Favaro, “Amici e Corrispondenti di Galileo Galilei, II. Girolamo Magagnati,” Atti del Instituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, Serie 7, 7, 441 (1896).

Favaro, A.

A. Favaro, Galileo Galilei e Suor Maria Celeste (Firenze, 1891), p. 405n.

Gunther, R. T.

R. T. Gunther, Early Science at Oxford (Oxford Univ. Press, 1930), Vol. VI, p. 352.

Hevelius], [J.

[J. Hevelius], J. Hevelu Selenographia: sive Lunae Descriptio. Addita est, Lentes expoliendi Nova Ratio: ut et Telescopia diversa construendi: (Gedani, Danzig, 1647), p. 11.

Hooke, R.

R. Hooke, Micrographia: or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon (London, 1665), Preface.

Huygens, C.

C. Huygens, Toutes les oeuvres et la correspondence de Christiaan Huygens (La Hague, 1886–1916), Tome IX (1663), pp. 400–401; Toutes les oeuvres et la correspondence de Christiaan Huygens Tome VIII (1683), pp. 432–440.

Kelly, J.

J. Kelly, The Life of John Dollond (London, 1808), 3rd ed., pp. 7, 61–77.

Kepler, J.

J. Kepler, Dioptrice seu demonstratio eorum quae visui et visibilibus propter conspicilla non ita pridem inventa accidunt (Augsburg, 1611), pp. 70–72.

Maignan, E.O.M.

E.O.M. Maignan, Perspectiva Horaria, sive de Horographia Gnomonica tum theoretica turn practica… praecipuam Admirationem habet thaumantias Catoptrica atque Dioptrica, id est reflexus, acrefractus a Speculo Cylindrico Solaris Radius, omnes, qui in Sphaera cogitari possunt, Circulos gnomonice reddens Iridis Modo ac Specie Lux quoque secundum, propriam Naturam sumpta suas ibi habet Partes, ubi e Principiis eius physicis Ratio redditur Reflexionum ac Refractionum eiusdem. Consequitur vero Sphericum sed etiam Hyperbolicum atque Ellipticum (Rome, 1648), pp. 687–705.

Manzini, C. A.

C. A. Manzini, L’Occhiale All, Occhio, Dioptrica Pratica del Conte Carlo Antonio Manzini, Dottore Collegiato, Ecc. Dove si tratta della Luce; della Refractione de Raggi; dell’Occhio; delta Vista; e de gli aiuti, che dare si possono a gli Occhi per vedere quasi l’impossibile. Dove in oltre si spiegano le Regole Pratiche di Fabbricare OCCHIALI a tutte le Viste, E CANNONCHIALI da osservare i PIANETI, e le STELLE FISSE, da TERRA, da MARE, Et altri da ingrandire Migliaia di volte i minimi de gli Oggetti vicini (Bologna, 1660), p. 27.

Newton, I.

I. Newton, Opticks (London, 1718), p. 83.

Poggendorf, J. C.

According to J. C. Poggendorf, Geschichteder Physik (Leipzig, 1879), p. 376, “Divini had a rival in Rome, Giuseppe Campani … This rival surpassed Divini in the construction of lenses and acquired great fame in this art …”.

Smith, R.

R. Smith, A Compleat System of Opticks in four books (Cambridge, 1738), iii, pp. 281–301.

Varetti, C. V.

C. V. Varetti, “L’Artefice di Galileo Ippolito Francini detto Tordo”, Rendiconti della R. Accadenia Nazionale Lincei, Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche, Serie Sesta, Vol. XV, Fasc. 3-4, Marzo–Aprile 1939, p. 245.

Atti della Societa Colombaria di Firenze (1)

P. P. G. Conti, “II Vetro per l’Ottica in Italia”, Atti della Societa Colombaria di Firenze, Anno 1930–31 (9Febbraio, 1931), pp. 36–39. A. Neri, L’arte vetraria distinta in libri sette, ne’quali si scroprono effetti mervigliosi e s’insegnano segretibellissirnidel vetronel fioco e altre cose curiose (Firenze, 1612).

J. History Medicine Allied Sciences (1)

S. A. Bedini, “The Optical Workshop Equipment of Giuseppe Campani, J. History Medicine Allied Sciences XVI, 18 (1961).

Opere di Galileo Galilei (2)

Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale, Vol. XX, p. 528. The correspondence between Galileo and Sagredo is reproduced in the Opere in Vols. X through XIII.

Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale, Vol. XV, p. 348. Letter from Bernardo Conti to Galileo dated 7December1633.

Physis (2)

S. A. Bedini, “Seventeenth Century Italian Compound Microscopes”, Physis, 1963, Vol. V, fasc. 4, pp. 386–389.

S. Drake, “Galileo Gleanings—XIV. Galileo and Giorlamo Magagnati”, Physis, 1964, Anno VI, fasc. 3, pp. 269–286; A. Favaro, “Amici e Corrispondenti di Galileo Galilei, II. Girolamo Magagnati,” Atti del Instituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, Serie 7, 7, 441 (1896).

Rendiconti della R. Accadenia Nazionale Lincei, Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche, Serie Sesta (1)

C. V. Varetti, “L’Artefice di Galileo Ippolito Francini detto Tordo”, Rendiconti della R. Accadenia Nazionale Lincei, Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche, Serie Sesta, Vol. XV, Fasc. 3-4, Marzo–Aprile 1939, p. 245.

Other (23)

Ref. 8, p. 33.

E.O.M. Maignan, Perspectiva Horaria, sive de Horographia Gnomonica tum theoretica turn practica… praecipuam Admirationem habet thaumantias Catoptrica atque Dioptrica, id est reflexus, acrefractus a Speculo Cylindrico Solaris Radius, omnes, qui in Sphaera cogitari possunt, Circulos gnomonice reddens Iridis Modo ac Specie Lux quoque secundum, propriam Naturam sumpta suas ibi habet Partes, ubi e Principiis eius physicis Ratio redditur Reflexionum ac Refractionum eiusdem. Consequitur vero Sphericum sed etiam Hyperbolicum atque Ellipticum (Rome, 1648), pp. 687–705.

[J. Hevelius], J. Hevelu Selenographia: sive Lunae Descriptio. Addita est, Lentes expoliendi Nova Ratio: ut et Telescopia diversa construendi: (Gedani, Danzig, 1647), p. 11.

Philosophical Transactionsof the Royal Society, 1668, Vol. III, p. 842, “Microscope of a new fashion by the means whereof there hath been seen an animal lesser than any of those seen hitherto”.

S. A. Bedini, “Giuseppe Campani, Pioneer Optical Inventor”, Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of the History of Science (Hermann, Paris), Vol. I, pp. 401, 404.

G. Campani, Ragguaglio di Due Nuove Osservazioni Una Celeste in Ordine Alla Stella di Saturno: E Terrestre l’Altra in Ordine agli Strumenti Medesimi, Co’Quali si e Fatta l’Una e l‘Altra Osservazione, Dato al Serennissimo Principe Mattia di Toscana (Rome, 1664), pp. 24–27.

According to J. C. Poggendorf, Geschichteder Physik (Leipzig, 1879), p. 376, “Divini had a rival in Rome, Giuseppe Campani … This rival surpassed Divini in the construction of lenses and acquired great fame in this art …”.

C. A. Manzini, L’Occhiale All, Occhio, Dioptrica Pratica del Conte Carlo Antonio Manzini, Dottore Collegiato, Ecc. Dove si tratta della Luce; della Refractione de Raggi; dell’Occhio; delta Vista; e de gli aiuti, che dare si possono a gli Occhi per vedere quasi l’impossibile. Dove in oltre si spiegano le Regole Pratiche di Fabbricare OCCHIALI a tutte le Viste, E CANNONCHIALI da osservare i PIANETI, e le STELLE FISSE, da TERRA, da MARE, Et altri da ingrandire Migliaia di volte i minimi de gli Oggetti vicini (Bologna, 1660), p. 27.

Ref. 8, p. 30.

From an Italian 17th-century manuscript account entitled “A Treatise on Optics by Giovanni Christoforo Bolantio” which forms part of a bound manuscript volume with the general title “Trattato Sulla Maniera per Costruire Orologij” in the author’s collection.

A. Favaro, Galileo Galilei e Suor Maria Celeste (Firenze, 1891), p. 405n.

Ms. B., Institut de France, folio 13 recto and folio 21 verso.

R. Descartes, Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. Plus la Dioptrique, Les Météores, et la Géométrie (Leyden, 1637), pp. 19–21. Snell’s description of the law of optical refraction using cosecants, which he had developed in 1621, was posthumously published in 1662 by Isaac Voss with the title De lucis natura et proprietate…, p. 36.

J. Kepler, Dioptrice seu demonstratio eorum quae visui et visibilibus propter conspicilla non ita pridem inventa accidunt (Augsburg, 1611), pp. 70–72.

J. Kelly, The Life of John Dollond (London, 1808), 3rd ed., pp. 7, 61–77.

F. de Bondaroy, “Memoires sur les objectifs”, Memoires de l’académie royale des sciences pour l’année 1764 (Amsterdam, 1768), pp. 251–261 and Plate 6.

C. Huygens, Toutes les oeuvres et la correspondence de Christiaan Huygens (La Hague, 1886–1916), Tome IX (1663), pp. 400–401; Toutes les oeuvres et la correspondence de Christiaan Huygens Tome VIII (1683), pp. 432–440.

R. Smith, A Compleat System of Opticks in four books (Cambridge, 1738), iii, pp. 281–301.

R. Hooke, Micrographia: or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon (London, 1665), Preface.

R. Descartes, Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. Plus la dioptrique, les météores, et la géomtrie (Leyden, 1637), pp. 19–21.

I. Newton, Opticks (London, 1718), p. 83.

R. T. Gunther, Early Science at Oxford (Oxford Univ. Press, 1930), Vol. VI, p. 352.

Cherubin d’Orléans, Dioptrique Oculaire, ou la Théorique, la positive, et la mechanique, de l’oculaire dioptrique en toutes ses especes (Paris, 1671), Plates 47 and 52, pp. 340–355.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

“Strumento da sfere” from the sketch by Leonardo da Vinci in Ms. B, folio 21 verso. (Courtesy Institut de France.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top and edge views of a seventeenth-century Italian mold cast lens blank. Diameter 8.9 cm, thickness at center 0.635 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

“Tornio in aria” or aerially operated lathe for grinding and polishing lenses in the seventeenth century. Reproduced from Manzini’s L’Occhiale all ’Occhio (Bologna, 1666).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Improved lathe for grinding and polishing lenses developed by Ippolito Francini of Florence. It was undoubtedly on a lathe of this design that Francini produced some of the lenses for Galileo’s instruments between 1623 and his death in 1653. Reproduced from Manzini.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lens-grinding lathe improved by Manzini from the equipment designed and illustrated by Emanuel Maignan in 1648. Reproduced from Manzini.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Lathe for grinding and polishing lenses without first casting them in molds. Invented by Giuseppe Campani about 1664 and sketched by Fougeroux de Bondaroy in 1764. Reproduced from Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences pour l’année 1764.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Baton devised by Christiaan Huygens for polishing lenses about 1660. Reproduced from Toutes Les Oeuvres et la Correspondence de Christiaan Huygens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sketch of a machine for grinding and polishing lenses drawn by Christiaan Huygens about 1665. Reproduced from Toutes les Oeuvres, Vol. XXII.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Isaac Newton’s sketch of a lens-grinding machine. (b) Detail of the machine. Reproduced from Newton’s Opticks, p. 83.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Horizontal lens-grinding lathe for making spherically concave molds designed by Cherubin d’Orléans. Reproduced from La Dioptrique Oculaire, Plate 46.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Apparatus for shaping molds and for the grinding of convex lenses, devised by Cherubin d’Orléans. Reproduced from Plate 52 of La Dioptrique Oculaire.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Attachment for polishing small lenses with a bow lathe from a sketch in correspondence of Huygens. Reproduced from Toutes les Oeuvres, Vol. VIII, p. 432.

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