Abstract

The fabrication of optical elements began as an art rather than a science and has tended to remain so throughout its history. Today’s methods are largely extensions of the original techniques. With space-age demands for rapid response as well as quality, some effort is being made to remove optical technology from the realm of wizardry by standardizing fabrication procedures and associated working materials. However, the diversity of problems encountered in modern optical fabrication requires a flexibility of approach which indicates that the artisan will always be with us. Examples of some optical fabrication and testing procedures employed at the Goddard Space Flight Center are presented.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Lens grinding lathe of Ippolito Francini of Florence. Illustrated in “The Makers of Gallileo’s Instruments”, Silvio A. Bedini, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gallileo, Florence (1964). Original illustration in L’Occhiale All’Occhio, Count Carlo Antonio Manzini, Bologna (1666.)
  2. F. Twyman, Prism and Lens Making (Hilger & Watts, Ltd., London, 1957), p. 7.
  3. Reference 2, p. 9.
  4. L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman & Sons, Ltd., London, 1960), Vol. 2, p. 20.
  5. I. Newton, Optics (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1952, based on 4th ed., London, 1730), p. 103.
  6. Reference 2, p. 17.
  7. C. R. Burch, Parsons Memorial Lecture, 22 October 1959, Yearbook, Phys. Soc. (London), p. 63.
  8. C. R. Burch, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 80, Part 2, 149 (1961). The authors are indebted to C. W. McCutchen of the U. S. Public Health Service for making them aware of the work of Dr. Burch.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Optical Elements for Fire Control Instruments, U. S. Army Frankford Arsenal, prepared November 1945, printed April1951. This comprehensive publication is out of print and has become a collector’s item that can be found in some technical libraries and in the possession of a small number of fortunate individuals.
  10. Reference 2, p. 191.
  11. R. R. Brooks, V. Z. Williams, Appl. Opt. 4, 325 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Reference 9, p. 2509.
  13. Reference 2, p. 79.
  14. Reference 2.
  15. J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1938).
  16. W. F. Koehler, W. C. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1011 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. R. Herriott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1142 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. W. Taylor, in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques, London, 1961, K. J. Habell, Ed. (Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1962), p. XI.
  19. V. Z. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 772 (1963).
  20. A. Cox, M. F. Royston, Ref. 18, p. 330.
  21. L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N. Y., 1964), p. 15.
  22. G. J. Beilby, Trans. Opt. Soc. 9, 22 (1907).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. W. French, Trans. Opt. Soc. 17, 24 (1916).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Thompson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 843 (1922).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Inferometry (Oxford University Press, London, 1948), p. 46.
  26. K. Ray, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 92 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. F. Koehler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 743 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. F. Koehler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1015 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Kaller, Zeiss, Jena, Silikat Techn. 7, 10, 380 (1956).
  30. Linde Products Bulletin, F-9901-H, Metallographic Polishing with Linde Alumina Abrasives, Union Carbide Corporation, Linde Division, East Chicago, Indiana (1962).
  31. A. C. S. Van Heel, J. D. DeVeer, Ref. 18, p. 383.
  32. H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, V. R. Weidner, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 165.
  33. D. B. Spangenberg, A. G. Strang, J. L. Chamberlin, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 169.
  34. J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1394 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  35. K. Sayanagi, Ref. 18, p. 95.
  36. R. M. Scott, Ref. 18, p. 315.
  37. R. E. Hopkins, Ref. 18, p. 65.
  38. R. R. Willey, Sky and Telescope 23, 226 (1962).
  39. A. B. Meinel, Report on the Optical Performance of Aluminum Mirrors, private report to the Goddard Space Flight Center, August1962.
  40. F. Cooke, Appl. Opt. 4, 1210 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  41. Handbook for the Goddard Experiment Package, April1964, NASA contract with Kollsman Instrument Company, Syosset, N. Y. Fabrication of aspheric Kanigen-coated beryllium mirrors to λ/4, including 95-cm diam f/1.65 approximate concave hyperboloid, performed by Diffraction Limited, Inc., Bedford, Mass.
  42. H. H. Blau, H. A. Francis, Ref. 33, p. 159.
  43. J. A. Gurklis, Metal Removal by Electrochemical Methods and its Effects on Mechanical Properties of Metals (a survey paper) (Battelle Memorial Institute, Defense Metals Information Center, 1965), Report 213.
  44. T. M. Donovan, E. J. Ashley, H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1403 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  45. A. B. Meinel, in Stars and Stellar Systems, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.1960), Vol. 1, Telescopes, p. 38.
  46. J. G. Thompson, L. L. Lynes, “Goddard Experimental Package Thermal Design”, Vidya Report No. 74, June1962, Vidya, Inc.
  47. G. Hass, W. W. Erbe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 669 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  48. G. Haas, J. R. Jenness, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 86 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  49. A. P. Bradford, W. W. Erbe, G. Haas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 990 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  50. “9½ Foot Diameter Master and Mirror”, NASA contractor report CR-103, October1964, by the General Electric Company, Philadelphia, for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract.
  51. D. E. Stewart, “Brayton Cycle Solar Collector Study”, NASA contractor report CR-195, April1965, under contract, Electro-Optical Systems, Inc., Pasadena, Calif.
  52. F. J. Schmidt, I. J. Hess, “Electroforming Aluminum for Solar Energy Concentrators,” NASA contractor report CR-197, April1965, under contract, General Electric Company, Philadelphia, Penna.
  53. Reference 4, p. 355.
  54. R. E. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 23, 555 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  55. F. Cooke, Appl. Opt. 3, 1148 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  56. Reference 4, p. 353.

1965 (2)

1964 (1)

1963 (3)

1962 (1)

R. R. Willey, Sky and Telescope 23, 226 (1962).

1961 (2)

C. R. Burch, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 80, Part 2, 149 (1961). The authors are indebted to C. W. McCutchen of the U. S. Public Health Service for making them aware of the work of Dr. Burch.
[CrossRef]

D. R. Herriott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1142 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

1956 (1)

A. Kaller, Zeiss, Jena, Silikat Techn. 7, 10, 380 (1956).

1955 (2)

1954 (1)

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

R. E. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 23, 555 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

1922 (1)

1916 (1)

J. W. French, Trans. Opt. Soc. 17, 24 (1916).
[CrossRef]

1907 (1)

G. J. Beilby, Trans. Opt. Soc. 9, 22 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, E. J.

Bedini, Silvio A.

Lens grinding lathe of Ippolito Francini of Florence. Illustrated in “The Makers of Gallileo’s Instruments”, Silvio A. Bedini, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gallileo, Florence (1964). Original illustration in L’Occhiale All’Occhio, Count Carlo Antonio Manzini, Bologna (1666.)

Beilby, G. J.

G. J. Beilby, Trans. Opt. Soc. 9, 22 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

Blau, H. H.

H. H. Blau, H. A. Francis, Ref. 33, p. 159.

Bradford, A. P.

Brooks, R. R.

Burch, C. R.

C. R. Burch, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 80, Part 2, 149 (1961). The authors are indebted to C. W. McCutchen of the U. S. Public Health Service for making them aware of the work of Dr. Burch.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burch, Parsons Memorial Lecture, 22 October 1959, Yearbook, Phys. Soc. (London), p. 63.

Chamberlin, J. L.

D. B. Spangenberg, A. G. Strang, J. L. Chamberlin, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 169.

Cooke, F.

Cox, A.

A. Cox, M. F. Royston, Ref. 18, p. 330.

DeVeer, J. D.

A. C. S. Van Heel, J. D. DeVeer, Ref. 18, p. 383.

Donovan, T. M.

Erbe, W. W.

Francis, H. A.

H. H. Blau, H. A. Francis, Ref. 33, p. 159.

French, J. W.

J. W. French, Trans. Opt. Soc. 17, 24 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Gurklis, J. A.

J. A. Gurklis, Metal Removal by Electrochemical Methods and its Effects on Mechanical Properties of Metals (a survey paper) (Battelle Memorial Institute, Defense Metals Information Center, 1965), Report 213.

Haas, G.

Hass, G.

Herriott, D. R.

Hess, I. J.

F. J. Schmidt, I. J. Hess, “Electroforming Aluminum for Solar Energy Concentrators,” NASA contractor report CR-197, April1965, under contract, General Electric Company, Philadelphia, Penna.

Holland, L.

L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N. Y., 1964), p. 15.

Hopkins, R. E.

R. E. Hopkins, Ref. 18, p. 65.

Jenness, J. R.

Kaller, A.

A. Kaller, Zeiss, Jena, Silikat Techn. 7, 10, 380 (1956).

Keegan, H. J.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, V. R. Weidner, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 165.

Koehler, W. F.

Lewis, R. E.

R. E. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 23, 555 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Lynes, L. L.

J. G. Thompson, L. L. Lynes, “Goddard Experimental Package Thermal Design”, Vidya Report No. 74, June1962, Vidya, Inc.

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman & Sons, Ltd., London, 1960), Vol. 2, p. 20.

Meinel, A. B.

A. B. Meinel, Report on the Optical Performance of Aluminum Mirrors, private report to the Goddard Space Flight Center, August1962.

A. B. Meinel, in Stars and Stellar Systems, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.1960), Vol. 1, Telescopes, p. 38.

Newton, I.

I. Newton, Optics (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1952, based on 4th ed., London, 1730), p. 103.

Porteus, J. O.

Ray, K.

Royston, M. F.

A. Cox, M. F. Royston, Ref. 18, p. 330.

Sayanagi, K.

K. Sayanagi, Ref. 18, p. 95.

Schleter, J. C.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, V. R. Weidner, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 165.

Schmidt, F. J.

F. J. Schmidt, I. J. Hess, “Electroforming Aluminum for Solar Energy Concentrators,” NASA contractor report CR-197, April1965, under contract, General Electric Company, Philadelphia, Penna.

Scott, R. M.

R. M. Scott, Ref. 18, p. 315.

Spangenberg, D. B.

D. B. Spangenberg, A. G. Strang, J. L. Chamberlin, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 169.

Stewart, D. E.

D. E. Stewart, “Brayton Cycle Solar Collector Study”, NASA contractor report CR-195, April1965, under contract, Electro-Optical Systems, Inc., Pasadena, Calif.

Strang, A. G.

D. B. Spangenberg, A. G. Strang, J. L. Chamberlin, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 169.

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1938).

Taylor, E. W.

E. W. Taylor, in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques, London, 1961, K. J. Habell, Ed. (Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1962), p. XI.

Thompson, E.

Thompson, J. G.

J. G. Thompson, L. L. Lynes, “Goddard Experimental Package Thermal Design”, Vidya Report No. 74, June1962, Vidya, Inc.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Inferometry (Oxford University Press, London, 1948), p. 46.

Twyman, F.

F. Twyman, Prism and Lens Making (Hilger & Watts, Ltd., London, 1957), p. 7.

Van Heel, A. C. S.

A. C. S. Van Heel, J. D. DeVeer, Ref. 18, p. 383.

Weidner, V. R.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, V. R. Weidner, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 165.

White, W. C.

Willey, R. R.

R. R. Willey, Sky and Telescope 23, 226 (1962).

Williams, V. Z.

R. R. Brooks, V. Z. Williams, Appl. Opt. 4, 325 (1965).
[CrossRef]

V. Z. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 772 (1963).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (12)

J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. (1)

C. R. Burch, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 80, Part 2, 149 (1961). The authors are indebted to C. W. McCutchen of the U. S. Public Health Service for making them aware of the work of Dr. Burch.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

R. E. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 23, 555 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Sky and Telescope (1)

R. R. Willey, Sky and Telescope 23, 226 (1962).

Trans. Opt. Soc. (2)

G. J. Beilby, Trans. Opt. Soc. 9, 22 (1907).
[CrossRef]

J. W. French, Trans. Opt. Soc. 17, 24 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Zeiss, Jena, Silikat Techn. (1)

A. Kaller, Zeiss, Jena, Silikat Techn. 7, 10, 380 (1956).

Other (35)

Linde Products Bulletin, F-9901-H, Metallographic Polishing with Linde Alumina Abrasives, Union Carbide Corporation, Linde Division, East Chicago, Indiana (1962).

A. C. S. Van Heel, J. D. DeVeer, Ref. 18, p. 383.

H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, V. R. Weidner, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 165.

D. B. Spangenberg, A. G. Strang, J. L. Chamberlin, Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, NASA, San Francisco, March 1964, NASA SP-55, p. 169.

A. B. Meinel, Report on the Optical Performance of Aluminum Mirrors, private report to the Goddard Space Flight Center, August1962.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Inferometry (Oxford University Press, London, 1948), p. 46.

K. Sayanagi, Ref. 18, p. 95.

R. M. Scott, Ref. 18, p. 315.

R. E. Hopkins, Ref. 18, p. 65.

A. Cox, M. F. Royston, Ref. 18, p. 330.

L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N. Y., 1964), p. 15.

Optical Elements for Fire Control Instruments, U. S. Army Frankford Arsenal, prepared November 1945, printed April1951. This comprehensive publication is out of print and has become a collector’s item that can be found in some technical libraries and in the possession of a small number of fortunate individuals.

Reference 2, p. 191.

E. W. Taylor, in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques, London, 1961, K. J. Habell, Ed. (Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1962), p. XI.

Reference 9, p. 2509.

Reference 2, p. 79.

Reference 2.

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1938).

Lens grinding lathe of Ippolito Francini of Florence. Illustrated in “The Makers of Gallileo’s Instruments”, Silvio A. Bedini, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Gallileo, Florence (1964). Original illustration in L’Occhiale All’Occhio, Count Carlo Antonio Manzini, Bologna (1666.)

F. Twyman, Prism and Lens Making (Hilger & Watts, Ltd., London, 1957), p. 7.

Reference 2, p. 9.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman & Sons, Ltd., London, 1960), Vol. 2, p. 20.

I. Newton, Optics (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1952, based on 4th ed., London, 1730), p. 103.

Reference 2, p. 17.

C. R. Burch, Parsons Memorial Lecture, 22 October 1959, Yearbook, Phys. Soc. (London), p. 63.

A. B. Meinel, in Stars and Stellar Systems, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.1960), Vol. 1, Telescopes, p. 38.

J. G. Thompson, L. L. Lynes, “Goddard Experimental Package Thermal Design”, Vidya Report No. 74, June1962, Vidya, Inc.

Reference 4, p. 353.

“9½ Foot Diameter Master and Mirror”, NASA contractor report CR-103, October1964, by the General Electric Company, Philadelphia, for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract.

D. E. Stewart, “Brayton Cycle Solar Collector Study”, NASA contractor report CR-195, April1965, under contract, Electro-Optical Systems, Inc., Pasadena, Calif.

F. J. Schmidt, I. J. Hess, “Electroforming Aluminum for Solar Energy Concentrators,” NASA contractor report CR-197, April1965, under contract, General Electric Company, Philadelphia, Penna.

Reference 4, p. 355.

Handbook for the Goddard Experiment Package, April1964, NASA contract with Kollsman Instrument Company, Syosset, N. Y. Fabrication of aspheric Kanigen-coated beryllium mirrors to λ/4, including 95-cm diam f/1.65 approximate concave hyperboloid, performed by Diffraction Limited, Inc., Bedford, Mass.

H. H. Blau, H. A. Francis, Ref. 33, p. 159.

J. A. Gurklis, Metal Removal by Electrochemical Methods and its Effects on Mechanical Properties of Metals (a survey paper) (Battelle Memorial Institute, Defense Metals Information Center, 1965), Report 213.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Speculum Schwarzschild–Cassegrain reflecting objective with N.A. ≃ 0.65. One objective of this type described by C. R. Burch consists of a spherical small mirror with 0.4 cm radius and an aspheric, approximately ellipsoidal large mirror with paraxial radius of 5.0 cm. The composite objective possesses a focal length of 3 mm, a magnification of 115X and a working distance (D) of 12 mm.8

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stroke geometry of blade-grinding technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Blade-grinding attachment mounted to ram of shaper.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flexible polisher made to follow a template.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Off-axis cylindrical parabola.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Drive mechanism for oscillating polisher as mounted on ram of shaper.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Oscillating pitch lap showing its hinged flaps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polishing tool with weighted flaps.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Knife-edge toroidal mirror. Dimensions are in inches.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical test arrangement for toroidal mirror showing annular screen and microscope.

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