Abstract

A solar focus and seeing monitor is described which utilizes the properties of an image of the telescope objective formed after putting a knife edge next to the solar limb. In a very simple way simultaneous measurements are obtained for the telescope focus and for the image motion and blurring produced by the earth’s atmosphere.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. O. Kiepenheuer, Proc. I. A. U. Symp. No. 19 (Site testing), Rome, 1962, p. 193.
  2. R. J. Bray, R. E. Loughhead, D. G. Norton, The Observatory 79, 63 (1959).
  3. J. Rösch, Proc. I. A. U. Symp. No. 19 (Site testing), Rome, 1962, p. 35.
  4. D. Zindel, Z. Astrophys. 57, 83 (1963).
  5. H. Siedentopf, Die Sterne 19, 145 (1939).
  6. J. Janssen, Ann. Obs. Paris, Meudon 1, 10 (1896).
  7. J. W. Evans, Appl. Opt. 3, 1387 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Larks, J. Sci. Instr. 41, 780 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Pargas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 516 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Houtgast, Hemel en Dampkring 34, 270 (1936); see also Rroc. of Symp. on Solar Seeing, Rome, 1961, p. 22.

1964 (3)

1963 (1)

D. Zindel, Z. Astrophys. 57, 83 (1963).

1959 (1)

R. J. Bray, R. E. Loughhead, D. G. Norton, The Observatory 79, 63 (1959).

1939 (1)

H. Siedentopf, Die Sterne 19, 145 (1939).

1936 (1)

J. Houtgast, Hemel en Dampkring 34, 270 (1936); see also Rroc. of Symp. on Solar Seeing, Rome, 1961, p. 22.

1896 (1)

J. Janssen, Ann. Obs. Paris, Meudon 1, 10 (1896).

Bray, R. J.

R. J. Bray, R. E. Loughhead, D. G. Norton, The Observatory 79, 63 (1959).

Evans, J. W.

Houtgast, J.

J. Houtgast, Hemel en Dampkring 34, 270 (1936); see also Rroc. of Symp. on Solar Seeing, Rome, 1961, p. 22.

Janssen, J.

J. Janssen, Ann. Obs. Paris, Meudon 1, 10 (1896).

Kiepenheuer, K. O.

K. O. Kiepenheuer, Proc. I. A. U. Symp. No. 19 (Site testing), Rome, 1962, p. 193.

Larks, L.

L. Larks, J. Sci. Instr. 41, 780 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Loughhead, R. E.

R. J. Bray, R. E. Loughhead, D. G. Norton, The Observatory 79, 63 (1959).

Norton, D. G.

R. J. Bray, R. E. Loughhead, D. G. Norton, The Observatory 79, 63 (1959).

Pargas, P.

Rösch, J.

J. Rösch, Proc. I. A. U. Symp. No. 19 (Site testing), Rome, 1962, p. 35.

Siedentopf, H.

H. Siedentopf, Die Sterne 19, 145 (1939).

Zindel, D.

D. Zindel, Z. Astrophys. 57, 83 (1963).

Ann. Obs. Paris, Meudon (1)

J. Janssen, Ann. Obs. Paris, Meudon 1, 10 (1896).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Die Sterne (1)

H. Siedentopf, Die Sterne 19, 145 (1939).

Hemel en Dampkring (1)

J. Houtgast, Hemel en Dampkring 34, 270 (1936); see also Rroc. of Symp. on Solar Seeing, Rome, 1961, p. 22.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Sci. Instr. (1)

L. Larks, J. Sci. Instr. 41, 780 (1964).
[CrossRef]

The Observatory (1)

R. J. Bray, R. E. Loughhead, D. G. Norton, The Observatory 79, 63 (1959).

Z. Astrophys. (1)

D. Zindel, Z. Astrophys. 57, 83 (1963).

Other (2)

K. O. Kiepenheuer, Proc. I. A. U. Symp. No. 19 (Site testing), Rome, 1962, p. 193.

J. Rösch, Proc. I. A. U. Symp. No. 19 (Site testing), Rome, 1962, p. 35.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the layout of the monitor. (a) S is the solar image as formed by the telescope, K the knife edge, and L the lens which forms the objective image O. (b) The objective image with the two photocells I and II. For the situation as in (a) I receives more light than II.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three photographs of the Sacramento Peak Observatory 30.5-cm coelostat objective. The central photograph shows the objective image in case the solar image is in focus oil the knife edge. The other two photographs were taken when the solar image was out of focus in opposite directions for the two images. The small-scale inhomogeneities in the images (schlieren) are caused by optical irregularities in the earth atmosphere and are the cause of the image blurring.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the associated electronics. A is a null indicator for focus determination, B, C, and D are dc microammeters for sharpness, motion, and intensity measurements.

Equations (19)

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S M = α A W ,             if L W ,
S M α W A ( L / W ) ,             if L W ,
S F = β A Q 2 ,             if R Q ,
S F β A Q R ,             if R Q ,
I I = γ W P ( δ + Δ d 2 F ) ,
I II = γ W P ( δ - Δ 2 F ) ,
( I I - I II ) = γ W P Δ d F R F independent of δ
I I - I II I I + I II = Δ d 2 F δ R F .
I ( r ) = I 0 exp ( - r 2 / r 0 2 ) ,
N ( x ) = N 0 exp ( - x 2 / x 0 2 ) , with x 0 = r 0
M ( i ) = M 0 exp ( - i 2 / i 0 2 ) , with i 0 = γ W x 0 ,
S F = ( 2 ) 1 / 2 γ W x 0 P , if P N O 1 ,
S F γ W x 0 P ( 2 O P N ) ½ , if P N O 1 ,
S F R F = 2 x 0 Δ F d ( I N ) 1 / 2 ,
S F R F = 2 1 / 2 x 0 Δ F d .
S M = 2 γ W A P , for L W ,
S M 2 γ W A P ( L W ) 1 / 2 , for L W ,
S M F = ( S M 2 + S F 2 ) .
S M R F = 2 A Δ F d ,

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