Abstract

A method is presented for obtaining spectroscopic temperatures in shock tubes using relative emission from two wavelength regions of a molecular band system. Experimental results are given for the OH violet system obtained in the reflected wave region near 3500°K. These results show that equilibrium conditions prevail and that the spectroscopic temperatures agree with those calculated from shock wave velocities. A resume of the appropriate theoretical considerations is given along with a detailed discussion of the experimental techniques required. A brief discussion is also given of some other techniques used to measure temperatures in shock tubes, and comments are made regarding these methods as well as on some of the general problems associated with spectroscopic temperature measurements in shock tubes.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. L. Resler, S. C. Lin, A. Kantrowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1390 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  2. I. I. Glass, J. G. Hall, Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics, Sec. 18, Shock Tubes, NAVORD Rept. 1488 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1959).
  3. T. Carrington, N. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 418 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. E. Treanor, W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 758 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. C. Keck, J. C. Camm, B. Kivel, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 723 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Watson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 4, 1 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. D. Wilkerson, PhD Thesis and Univ. of Michigan Dept. of Physics Rept. No. 02822-3-T (June1961).
  8. C. E. Treanor, Reprint No. 65-29, 2nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting of the AIAA, New York, Jan. 1965.
  9. W. L. Shackleford, PhD Thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1964.
  10. A. Roshko, Phys. Fluids 3, 835 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Mirels, “Boundary Layer Effects in Shock Tubes”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.
  12. A. Hertzberg, W. E. Smith, H. S. Glick, W. Squire, Report AD-789-A-2, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. (March1955).
  13. A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, The Shock Tube in High Temperature Chemical Physics (Reinhold, New York, 1963).
  14. S. S. Penner, in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 561–574.
  15. J. G. Phillips, in Optical Spectrometric Measurements of High Temperatures, P. J. Dickerman, ed. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961).
  16. J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. I. Glass, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 248A, 429 (1958); J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 252A, 143 (1959); A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 262A, 38 (1961).
  17. W. H. Parkinson, R. W. Nicholls, Can. J. Phys. 38, 715 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Nadaud, M. Gicquel, “Mesure Optique des Temperatures Elevees”, from AGARD meeting on High Temperature Aspects of Hypersonic Flow, Brussels, April 1962.
  19. G. Charatis, PhD Thesis, Univ. of Michigan, 1961.
  20. W. H. Wurster, C. E. Treanor, “Spectroscopic Technique for Temperature-Density Measurements in Oxygen-Bearing Flows”, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. Rept. No. AD-118-A-10, Buffalo, N.Y. (Dec.1959).
  21. R. H. Tourin, “Monochromatic Radiation Pyrometry of Hot Gases, Plasmas, and Detonations”, in Temperature, its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. 3, Part 2, Chap. 43.
  22. M. R. Lauver, J. H. Hall, F. E. Belles, TMX-52104, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (April1965).
  23. G. J. Penzias, S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, “Determination of Shock Temperatures from Simultaneous Infrared Emission and Absorption Measurements”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.
  24. W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 2111 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. A. Allen, J. C. Camm, J. C. Keck, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 1, 269 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. Watson, “Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements in Shock Tubes Utilizing Emission from the OH Violet Bands”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.
  27. R. A. Allen, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 511 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).
  29. R. Watson, W. R. Ferguson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 595 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  30. G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 2, 197 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. W. Nicholls, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A69, 741 (1956).
  32. R. Watson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 10, 1113 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. N. Schwartz, Z. I. Slawsky, K. F. Herzfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1591 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  34. K. F. Herzfeld, T. A. Litovitz, Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves (Academic, New York, 1959), p. 328.

1965 (2)

R. A. Allen, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 511 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. Watson, W. R. Ferguson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 595 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Watson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 4, 1 (1964).
[Crossref]

1962 (3)

W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 2111 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 2, 197 (1962).
[Crossref]

R. Watson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 10, 1113 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. A. Allen, J. C. Camm, J. C. Keck, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 1, 269 (1961).
[Crossref]

1960 (3)

A. Roshko, Phys. Fluids 3, 835 (1960).
[Crossref]

C. E. Treanor, W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 758 (1960).
[Crossref]

W. H. Parkinson, R. W. Nicholls, Can. J. Phys. 38, 715 (1960).
[Crossref]

1958 (2)

J. C. Keck, J. C. Camm, B. Kivel, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 723 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. I. Glass, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 248A, 429 (1958); J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 252A, 143 (1959); A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 262A, 38 (1961).

1956 (1)

R. W. Nicholls, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A69, 741 (1956).

1953 (1)

T. Carrington, N. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 418 (1953).
[Crossref]

1952 (2)

E. L. Resler, S. C. Lin, A. Kantrowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1390 (1952).
[Crossref]

R. N. Schwartz, Z. I. Slawsky, K. F. Herzfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1591 (1952).
[Crossref]

Allen, R. A.

R. A. Allen, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 511 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. A. Allen, J. C. Camm, J. C. Keck, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 1, 269 (1961).
[Crossref]

Belles, F. E.

M. R. Lauver, J. H. Hall, F. E. Belles, TMX-52104, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (April1965).

Camm, J. C.

R. A. Allen, J. C. Camm, J. C. Keck, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 1, 269 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. C. Keck, J. C. Camm, B. Kivel, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 723 (1958).
[Crossref]

Carrington, T.

T. Carrington, N. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 418 (1953).
[Crossref]

Charatis, G.

G. Charatis, PhD Thesis, Univ. of Michigan, 1961.

Clouston, J. G.

J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. I. Glass, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 248A, 429 (1958); J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 252A, 143 (1959); A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 262A, 38 (1961).

Crosswhite, H. M.

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 2, 197 (1962).
[Crossref]

Davidson, N.

T. Carrington, N. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 418 (1953).
[Crossref]

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 2, 197 (1962).
[Crossref]

Dolin, S. A.

G. J. Penzias, S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, “Determination of Shock Temperatures from Simultaneous Infrared Emission and Absorption Measurements”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

Ferguson, W. R.

R. Watson, W. R. Ferguson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 595 (1965).
[Crossref]

Gaydon, A. G.

J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. I. Glass, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 248A, 429 (1958); J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 252A, 143 (1959); A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 262A, 38 (1961).

A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, The Shock Tube in High Temperature Chemical Physics (Reinhold, New York, 1963).

Gicquel, M.

L. Nadaud, M. Gicquel, “Mesure Optique des Temperatures Elevees”, from AGARD meeting on High Temperature Aspects of Hypersonic Flow, Brussels, April 1962.

Glass, I. I.

J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. I. Glass, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 248A, 429 (1958); J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 252A, 143 (1959); A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 262A, 38 (1961).

I. I. Glass, J. G. Hall, Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics, Sec. 18, Shock Tubes, NAVORD Rept. 1488 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1959).

Glick, H. S.

A. Hertzberg, W. E. Smith, H. S. Glick, W. Squire, Report AD-789-A-2, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. (March1955).

Hall, J. G.

I. I. Glass, J. G. Hall, Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics, Sec. 18, Shock Tubes, NAVORD Rept. 1488 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1959).

Hall, J. H.

M. R. Lauver, J. H. Hall, F. E. Belles, TMX-52104, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (April1965).

Hertzberg, A.

A. Hertzberg, W. E. Smith, H. S. Glick, W. Squire, Report AD-789-A-2, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. (March1955).

Herzfeld, K. F.

R. N. Schwartz, Z. I. Slawsky, K. F. Herzfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1591 (1952).
[Crossref]

K. F. Herzfeld, T. A. Litovitz, Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves (Academic, New York, 1959), p. 328.

Hurle, I. R.

A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, The Shock Tube in High Temperature Chemical Physics (Reinhold, New York, 1963).

Kantrowitz, A.

E. L. Resler, S. C. Lin, A. Kantrowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1390 (1952).
[Crossref]

Keck, J. C.

R. A. Allen, J. C. Camm, J. C. Keck, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 1, 269 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. C. Keck, J. C. Camm, B. Kivel, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 723 (1958).
[Crossref]

Kivel, B.

J. C. Keck, J. C. Camm, B. Kivel, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 723 (1958).
[Crossref]

Kruegle, H. A.

G. J. Penzias, S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, “Determination of Shock Temperatures from Simultaneous Infrared Emission and Absorption Measurements”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

Lauver, M. R.

M. R. Lauver, J. H. Hall, F. E. Belles, TMX-52104, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (April1965).

Lin, S. C.

E. L. Resler, S. C. Lin, A. Kantrowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1390 (1952).
[Crossref]

Litovitz, T. A.

K. F. Herzfeld, T. A. Litovitz, Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves (Academic, New York, 1959), p. 328.

Mirels, H.

H. Mirels, “Boundary Layer Effects in Shock Tubes”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

Nadaud, L.

L. Nadaud, M. Gicquel, “Mesure Optique des Temperatures Elevees”, from AGARD meeting on High Temperature Aspects of Hypersonic Flow, Brussels, April 1962.

Nicholls, R. W.

W. H. Parkinson, R. W. Nicholls, Can. J. Phys. 38, 715 (1960).
[Crossref]

R. W. Nicholls, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A69, 741 (1956).

Parkinson, W. H.

W. H. Parkinson, R. W. Nicholls, Can. J. Phys. 38, 715 (1960).
[Crossref]

Penner, S. S.

S. S. Penner, in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 561–574.

S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).

Penzias, G. J.

G. J. Penzias, S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, “Determination of Shock Temperatures from Simultaneous Infrared Emission and Absorption Measurements”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

Phillips, J. G.

J. G. Phillips, in Optical Spectrometric Measurements of High Temperatures, P. J. Dickerman, ed. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961).

Resler, E. L.

E. L. Resler, S. C. Lin, A. Kantrowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1390 (1952).
[Crossref]

Roshko, A.

A. Roshko, Phys. Fluids 3, 835 (1960).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, R. N.

R. N. Schwartz, Z. I. Slawsky, K. F. Herzfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1591 (1952).
[Crossref]

Shackleford, W. L.

W. L. Shackleford, PhD Thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1964.

Slawsky, Z. I.

R. N. Schwartz, Z. I. Slawsky, K. F. Herzfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1591 (1952).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. E.

A. Hertzberg, W. E. Smith, H. S. Glick, W. Squire, Report AD-789-A-2, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. (March1955).

Squire, W.

A. Hertzberg, W. E. Smith, H. S. Glick, W. Squire, Report AD-789-A-2, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. (March1955).

Tourin, R. H.

R. H. Tourin, “Monochromatic Radiation Pyrometry of Hot Gases, Plasmas, and Detonations”, in Temperature, its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. 3, Part 2, Chap. 43.

Treanor, C. E.

C. E. Treanor, W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 758 (1960).
[Crossref]

C. E. Treanor, Reprint No. 65-29, 2nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting of the AIAA, New York, Jan. 1965.

W. H. Wurster, C. E. Treanor, “Spectroscopic Technique for Temperature-Density Measurements in Oxygen-Bearing Flows”, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. Rept. No. AD-118-A-10, Buffalo, N.Y. (Dec.1959).

Watson, R.

R. Watson, W. R. Ferguson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 595 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. Watson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 4, 1 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. Watson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 10, 1113 (1962).
[Crossref]

R. Watson, “Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements in Shock Tubes Utilizing Emission from the OH Violet Bands”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

Wilkerson, T. D.

T. D. Wilkerson, PhD Thesis and Univ. of Michigan Dept. of Physics Rept. No. 02822-3-T (June1961).

Wurster, W. H.

W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 2111 (1962).
[Crossref]

C. E. Treanor, W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 758 (1960).
[Crossref]

W. H. Wurster, C. E. Treanor, “Spectroscopic Technique for Temperature-Density Measurements in Oxygen-Bearing Flows”, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. Rept. No. AD-118-A-10, Buffalo, N.Y. (Dec.1959).

Can. J. Phys. (1)

W. H. Parkinson, R. W. Nicholls, Can. J. Phys. 38, 715 (1960).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. L. Resler, S. C. Lin, A. Kantrowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1390 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

C. E. Treanor, W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 758 (1960).
[Crossref]

J. C. Keck, J. C. Camm, B. Kivel, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 723 (1958).
[Crossref]

W. H. Wurster, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 2111 (1962).
[Crossref]

R. N. Schwartz, Z. I. Slawsky, K. F. Herzfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1591 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. Carrington, N. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. 57, 418 (1953).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer (5)

R. Watson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 4, 1 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. A. Allen, J. C. Camm, J. C. Keck, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 1, 269 (1961).
[Crossref]

R. A. Allen, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 511 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. Watson, W. R. Ferguson, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 5, 595 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 2, 197 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Fluids (1)

A. Roshko, Phys. Fluids 3, 835 (1960).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

R. W. Nicholls, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A69, 741 (1956).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. I. Glass, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 248A, 429 (1958); J. G. Clouston, A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 252A, 143 (1959); A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 262A, 38 (1961).

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

R. Watson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 10, 1113 (1962).
[Crossref]

Other (18)

S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).

R. Watson, “Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements in Shock Tubes Utilizing Emission from the OH Violet Bands”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

K. F. Herzfeld, T. A. Litovitz, Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves (Academic, New York, 1959), p. 328.

I. I. Glass, J. G. Hall, Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics, Sec. 18, Shock Tubes, NAVORD Rept. 1488 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1959).

L. Nadaud, M. Gicquel, “Mesure Optique des Temperatures Elevees”, from AGARD meeting on High Temperature Aspects of Hypersonic Flow, Brussels, April 1962.

G. Charatis, PhD Thesis, Univ. of Michigan, 1961.

W. H. Wurster, C. E. Treanor, “Spectroscopic Technique for Temperature-Density Measurements in Oxygen-Bearing Flows”, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. Rept. No. AD-118-A-10, Buffalo, N.Y. (Dec.1959).

R. H. Tourin, “Monochromatic Radiation Pyrometry of Hot Gases, Plasmas, and Detonations”, in Temperature, its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. 3, Part 2, Chap. 43.

M. R. Lauver, J. H. Hall, F. E. Belles, TMX-52104, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (April1965).

G. J. Penzias, S. A. Dolin, H. A. Kruegle, “Determination of Shock Temperatures from Simultaneous Infrared Emission and Absorption Measurements”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

H. Mirels, “Boundary Layer Effects in Shock Tubes”, presented at the American Physical Society 5th Shock Tube Symposium, Washington, D.C., 28–30 April 1965.

A. Hertzberg, W. E. Smith, H. S. Glick, W. Squire, Report AD-789-A-2, Cornell Aeronautical Lab. (March1955).

A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, The Shock Tube in High Temperature Chemical Physics (Reinhold, New York, 1963).

S. S. Penner, in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 561–574.

J. G. Phillips, in Optical Spectrometric Measurements of High Temperatures, P. J. Dickerman, ed. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961).

T. D. Wilkerson, PhD Thesis and Univ. of Michigan Dept. of Physics Rept. No. 02822-3-T (June1961).

C. E. Treanor, Reprint No. 65-29, 2nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting of the AIAA, New York, Jan. 1965.

W. L. Shackleford, PhD Thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1964.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental equipment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The monochromator slit function as determined by scanning the 3341.48 Hg line with a thermocouple; the monochromator slit-width setting is 1.0 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative intensity vs wavenumber setting for a monochromator with 2Δω* = 1049 cm−1 and a triangular slit function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The intensity ratio, ϕ(T), as a function of temperature for ω02 from 31,000 cm−1 to 32,000 cm−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A typical oscilloscope record from a shock tube test with observation of the OH emission in the axial direction behind the reflected shock wave. Sweep speed = 50 μsec/cm. The upper trace is for 32,250 cm−1 at 10 mV/cm; the lower trace is for 31,000 cm−1 at 5 mV/cm. The spectroscopic temperature is 3680°K and the calculated equilibrium temperature is 3620°K. Initial H2O concentration is 0.30%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Oscilloscope record of the OH emission behind the reflected shock viewed normal to the shock tube axis at 4.57 cm from the end wall. Sweep speed = 50 μsec/cm. Both traces are at 32,250 cm−1; the upper trace gain is 20 mV/cm, the lower trace gain is 50 mV/cm. Initial H2O concentration is 0.50%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Tabulation of Experimental Results

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( n 1 / n 2 ) = ( g 1 / g 2 ) exp - ( E 1 - E 2 ) / k T ,
τ d = 1 / [ k d ( X ) ]
α band = π e 2 m c 2 N l p f n n [ 1 - exp ( - h c ω ¯ 0 , 0 / k T ] ,
B i = ω 0 - Δ ω * ω 0 + Δ ω * ω i B ω ° g ω d ω ,
B i = B ω i ° g ω i 2 Δ ω * ω i d ω .
B i = B ω i ° g ω i X ω 0 - Δ ω * ω 0 + Δ ω * P ω i d ω = B ω i ° g ω i X S ω i ,
B i X = 16 π 3 c 3 k T exp ( - E u i / k T ) Q ω i 4 R e l 2 p n n 2 p k k i 2 g ω i ,
B X = 1 X [ n n ( vibrational bands ) b ( band branches ) i ( lines in each branch ) B i ] within 2 Δ ω * .
V / X = K ( B / X ) ,
V 1 K 2 V 2 K 1 = [ n n p n m 2 b i ω i 4 [ exp ( - E u i / k T ) ] p k k i 2 g ω i ] 2 Δ ω * 1 [ n n p n n 2 b i ω i 4 [ exp ( - E u i / k T ) ] p k k i 2 g ω i ] 2 Δ ω * 2
V 1 K 2 V 2 K 1 = ϕ ( T ) .
I rel = [ n n p n n 2 b i ω i 4 [ exp ( - E u i / k T ) ] p k k i 2 g ω i ] 2 Δ ω *
I = c ( t - τ ) [ 1 - exp ( - t / τ ) ] ,

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